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June 4, 2004

NCEA

The Source of Information and Assistance on Elder Abuse


Clearinghouse on Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly (CANE)

Annotated Bibliography
Cultural Issues in Elder Abuse
July 2002


CANE (Clearinghouse on Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly) is the nation's largest and most utilized computerized collection of elder abuse materials and resources. With over 3,000 holdings, CANE has the ability to perform customized searches of over 100 keywords producing annotated bibliographies available to the professional community and to the public.

CANE is a service of the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA), which is supported by the U.S. Administration on Aging.

The following articles addressing cultural issues in elder abuse are available by request from CANE. Please be aware of each article's file number. The digits following the hyphen in the file numbers indicate the total number of photocopied pages. For example, if the file number is A78-11, then this article (number A78-11) is 11 pages in length. Articles of interest will be forwarded to you at a cost of $.20 per page.

Order from:

CANE
Department of Consumer Studies
University of Delaware
Newark, DE 19716

PLEASE NOTE THAT A CHECK MADE OUT TO CANE-UD MUST ACCOMPANY YOUR ORDER. For further information on ordering materials, contact CANE at (302) 831-3525, or at [email protected].



  1. N4835-6
    Hybels, C. & Blazer, D.
    Racial Differences in the Increased Use of Psychotropic Medications
    Geriatric Times; III (2) March/April, 2002

    Data indicates that during the past decade there has been an increase in the use of psychotropic medications and that sedatives, hypnotics and anti-anxiety medications are among the most frequently prescribed to older patients. Researchers collected data on racial differences in usage pattern from 1986 through 1996. Across all categories, Whites were more likely to use psychotropic medications than African-Americans. Although the prevalence of depression appeared to remain constant at about 9% throughout the decade, racial differences in the use of anti-depressants increased over time as Whites, twice as likely to use anti-depressant medication in 1986, became three times more likely to use it by 1996/97. (Note: This article is available only online)


  2. N4874-7
    Pol, L., Mueller, K. & Tej Adidam, P.
    Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health Insurance for the Near Elderly
    Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved; 13 (2), 229-240, 2002

    This article reviews recent research regarding inequities of health insurance coverage for the "near elderly" (aged 55-64). Even allowing for health insurance correlates such as education and income, research indicates that Hispanics and non-Hispanic African-Americans are relatively underinsured compared to non-Hispanic Whites of this age cohort. Efforts to reshape public policy are considered.


  3. N4843-6
    Chung, R. & Bemak, F.
    The Relationship of Culture and Empathy in Cross-Cultural Counseling
    Journal of Counseling and Development; 80, 154-159, Spring 2002

    Although specifically describing the counseling relationship, this article provides guidance for the development of cultural empathy applicable to a variety of social service relationships. It begins with a general discussion of empathy, viewed as a core condition for the effective therapeutic relationship, and then reviews the limited literature on cultural empathy. In addition to Ridley's (1995) seven guidelines for communicating cultural empathy, the authors have added six other dimensions, and emphasize the need to understand the context of family and community within the client's culture, to develop an awareness of the client's social or political background, and to be highly sensitive to the particular discriminations that the client may experience routinely.


  4. N4851-6
    McCabe, M.
    Treating American Indians/Alaskan Native Elders
    Geriatric Times; 2 (6) November/December, 2001

    This article outlines the primary health concerns of American Indian and Alaskan Native Elders (AI/AN). From 1980-1988, the 65 and over AI/AN generation increased by 33%, while the same generation of the White population increased by 9%. Additionally, many AI/AN individuals aged 55-65 have the same number of chronic health problems found in Whites aged 65 and over. One recommendation made by the Indian Health Service is that the AI/AN population define "elders" according to functional status rather than chronological age. Heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza are the five leading causes of death. The importance of sensitivity to cultural issues when discussing advanced directives is one topic explored. (Available online only)


  5. N4756-14
    Tauiliili, D. Delva, J. & Browne, C.
    A Study of Attitudes Toward Aging and Caregiving Patterns Among Samoan Families in Hawaii
    Families and Health: Cross-Cultural Perspectives; 6(1), 1-14, 2001
    (Published simultaneously in the Journal of Family Social Work; 6{1}, 2001)

    While cultural patterns of caregiving and service utilization have been studied, the link between variations in attitudes toward the elderly and cultural caregiving patterns has not. Using a self-administered survey, distributed through four Samoan churches, this research examines the relationship between attitudes and family caregiving patterns among Samoan men and women living in Hawaii. General findings suggest that Samoans have a positive attitude towards the aging, and that there are no significant differences regarding age or gender. Implications include the need to design culturally-sensitive interventions and programs intended for all family members, not only women.


  6. L4396-14
    Janevic, M.R. & Connell, C.M.
    Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Differences in the Dementia Caregiving Experience: Recent Findings
    The Gerontologist; 41(3), 334-347, 2001

    Twenty-one studies based on 18 samples were reviewed. These caregivers were grouped racially and included the following ethnicities: African-Americans, Chinese, Chinese-Americans, Koreans, Korean-Americans, Latinos, Whites and residents of 14 European countries. This research found that among the White respondents, caregivers were more often spouses of the care recipient than among other ethnic groups. White caregivers also reported more depression and viewed caregiving as stressful more often than African-Americans. The research suggests that other minority groups may not have more available support than White caregivers.


  7. N4853-15
    Gordon, R. & Brill, D
    The Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly
    International Journal of Law and Psychiatry; 24, 183-197, 2001

    This overview provides an in-depth discussion of existing theoretical research into the causes of elder abuse. After describing problems in defining elder abuse, the authors present summaries of four major causal theories (stressed caregiver, learned violence, psychopathology, and dependency hypotheses.) As an outgrowth of these earlier explanations, an integrated theory of elder abuse and neglect is evolving. The impact of environmental factors and societal and cultural contexts are also considered.


  8. N4767-10
    Whitley, D., Kelley, S. & Sipe, T.
    Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: Are They at Increased Risk of Health Problems?
    Health and Social Work; 26 (2), 105-114, May 2001

    There is a growing body of research that indicates the mental and physical health of grandparents suffer as a result of taking on the responsibility of raising grandchildren. This article reports on a study of 100 African-American grandmothers (also great-grandmothers and great aunts) who have become full-time caregivers. The health and mental well-being of these women were assessed by health and behavioral inventories, self-report, and the observations documented by registered nurses. While it appears that there are at least moderate physical limitations, this survey does not appear to validate earlier studies indicating that emotional well-being suffers as a result of increased responsibilities. Researchers caution that based on limited support and health behavior profiles, there may be increased risk for future serious health problems.


  9. N4585-6
    Williams, A.
    Distress and Hardiness: A Comparison of African-American and White Caregivers
    Journal of National Black Nurses Association; 11 (1), 21-26, January 2000

    Cultural background and family hardiness have been considered as buffers to the stress of caregiving. This study explores whether African-American caregivers of stroke survivors report less distress than White caregivers. It also explores whether African-American caregivers perceive their families as hardier. Responses of 20 African-American and 26 White caregivers (all female) were compared with surprisingly few differences. The one noted difference was that White females scored higher on the Confidence subscale of the Family Hardiness Index. This differs from earlier research that indicated African-American caregivers perceived their situations as less stressful and more satisfying than White caregivers.


  10. C2070-17
    Phillips, L.R., Torres de Ardon, E., Komnenich, P., Killeen, M., & Rusinak, R.
    The Mexican American Caregiving Experience
    Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences; 22 (3), 296-313, August 2000

    This study investigates the differences between Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic White caregivers. Differences in the structure and the experience of caregiving are discussed. Among other findings, more Mexican-American adult children were found to be caregivers despite the presence of the elder's spouse, there were fewer Mexican-American elders living with adult children caregivers, and they appeared to have lower expectations for social support.


  11. E2655-21
    Ho, C.J., Weitzman, F., Xingjia, C., & Levkoff, S.E.
    Stress and Service Use Among Minority Caregivers to Elders with Dementia
    Journal of Gerontological Social Work; 33 (1), 67-88, 2000

    This study uses Pearlin, Mullan, Semple and Skaff's (1990) model of caregiver stress to evaluate the relationship of ethnicity, non-caregiving stressors and other stress-associated variables to service use by African-Americans, Chinese and Latinos. Ethnicity, non-caregiving stress and the cognitive impairment appeared related to unmet service needs.


  12. L4546-6
    Moon, A.
    Perceptions of Elder Abuse Among Various Cultural Groups: Similarities and Differences
    Generations; 75-80, Summer 2000

    In this article, the author reviews the small but growing body of research on multi-cultural issues in the elder abuse literature. While certain cultural groups appear more tolerant of specific forms of abuse than others, it appears that cultural background is no longer as strong a predictor of beliefs and behaviors. Therefore, a combined approach of general and culture-specific efforts are recommended for prevention and treatment.


  13. N4784-13
    Gupta, R. & Pillai, V.
    Caregiver Burden in South Asian Families: A Systems Theory Perspective
    Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work; 9(1/2), 41-53, 2000

    This study uses the systems perspective to examine the determinants of caregiver burden in Indian/Pakistani families. Four hypothesis are explored: (1) Caregivers involved in large support networks will experience less caregiver burden, due to increased social resources; (2) Caregivers of elderly experiencing health problems will experience greater caregiver burden; (3) Caregivers of elderly experiencing behavioral problems will experience greater caregiver burden; (4) Caregivers experiencing strong filial piety will experience less caregiver burden. One-hundred-eighteen telephone interviews were conducted with first-generation Indian/Pakistani men or women, caring for a parent or parent-in-law, living in a multi-generational household for at least one year. The findings indicate that caregivers identifying with the Asian cultural norms of filial piety experience less caregiver burden. Practical implications for social workers servicing this population are drawn.


  14. N4800-16
    Tomita, S.
    Elder Mistreatment: Practice Modifications to Accommodate Cultural Differences
    Journal of Multicultural Social Work; 8(3/4), 305-326, 2000
    (Published simultaneously in Violence: Diverse Populations and Communities; Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, N.Y., 2000)

    Although earlier research indicates that elder abuse victims are predominantly White, recent studies indicate that elder mistreatment may be as prevalent among other ethnic groups. Mistreatment may be undetected and underreported due to subtleties and cultural norms. Following a discussion of various conflict management styles, this article focuses on how practitioners may adapt interventions to suit various cultural contexts. Modifications described include the following: using culturally sensitive word choices, themes and behaviors to elicit discussion about suspected abuse; employing a neutral demeanor and assisting the victim in safety planning; and employing third party support from non-abusive family, friends and the community to expand the victim's support base beyond that of the perpetrator. Elements of Japanese, Korean, Hispanic and Native American cultures are discussed throughout the article.


  15. K4162-15
    Moon, A. & Benton, D.
    Tolerance of Elder Abuse and Attitudes Toward Third-Party Intervention Among African-American, Korean American, and White Elderly
    Journal of Multicultural Social Work; 8(3/4), 283-303, 2000
    (Published simultaneously in Violence: Diverse Populations and Communities; Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, N.Y., 2000)

    Seeking to augment the body of research regarding culturally specific aspects of elder abuse, the authors designed this study to compare a number of perceptions across three ethnic elderly populations. Tolerance for potential abuse, perceptions regarding perpetrators and causes of abuse, and attitudes toward third-party interventions were examined in sub-samples consisting of 100 African-American, 95 Korean-American and 90 White elders. The participants were directly interviewed regarding agreement or disagreement with 18 statements related to elder abuse. Generally, there were more similarities between African-American and White perceptions than Korean perceptions. While White elders appeared significantly more tolerant of verbal abuse than either of the other groups, Korean-American elderly appeared most tolerant of elder abuse in general, and financial exploitation in particular, and they appeared more likely to "blame the victim." On a more global level, a majority of all three groups appeared reluctant to report "suspected" abuse, and a considerable percentage of all groups answered "I don't know" when asked to respond to potentially abusive situations.


  16. K4205-13
    Hudson, M., Beasley, C., Benedict, R. et al
    Elder Abuse: Some African-American Views
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence; 14 (9), 915-939, 1999

    The purpose of this study was to assess what the term "elder abuse" meant to a sample of culturally diverse adults from seven counties in South Carolina. Groups were administered the Elder Abuse Vignette Scale (EAVS) and the Elements of Elder Abuse Scale (EEAS). Responses from African-American, Caucasian, and Native American groups were compared with one another and with the views of a panel of elder mistreatment experts. Relevant findings regarding African-American responses are discussed.


  17. L4389-9
    Kosloski, K., Montgomery, R., & Karner, T.X.
    Differences in the Perceived Need for Assistive Services by Culturally Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia
    The Journal of Applied Gerontology; 18 (2), 239-256, 1999

    Data from 2,947 Black, Hispanic and White caregiving dyads participating in Demonstration Grants to States programs was analyzed. Four services were examined (adult day care, in-home respite, meal services and home health care) to determine whether there are culturally based differences in attitudes toward the need for services that affect their likelihood of use.


  18. K4214-12
    Moon, A., Evans-Campbell, T.
    Awareness of Formal and Informal Sources of Help for Victims of Elder Abuse Among Korean-American and Caucasian Elders in Los Angeles
    Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; 11(3), 1-23, 1999

    In this article, the awareness of formal and informal sources of help for victims of elder abuse is compared between Korean-American and Caucasian elders. Analysis of the data suggests that Korean-American respondents were significantly less aware of four sources of help than Caucasian respondents. The respondents were asked about the Elder Abuse Hotline, Adult Protective Services (APS), general formal services, and general informal services. Results also suggest that most respondents in both groups have little or no knowledge of either the Elder Abuse Hotline or APS. Implications of this study are discussed with regard to early intervention and prevention of elder abuse.


  19. N4669-8
    Sanchez, Y.
    Elder Mistreatment in Mexican-American Communities: The Nevada and Michigan Experiences
    Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed., Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group, Chapter 5, 67-77; Phila., PA, 1998

    In this chapter, the author focuses on the perceptions and awareness of elder mistreatment among Mexican-Americans, the largest Latino population in America. Based on a 1996 study, this article discusses the responses of two Mexican-American data samples; a group of 32 residents of Detroit, Michigan, and 30 of Carson City, Nevada, all aged 60 and over. Findings indicate that elder mistreatment, denial of shelter in particular, is a concern among this ethnic group, the largest Latino population in the U.S. The concept of normative familism coupled with verguenza (shame) appears to form a barrier to reporting abuse and neglect to "outsiders." Differences between the two sample sets may be related to different levels of acculturation.


  20. N4670-9
    Sanchez, C.
    Elder Abuse in the Puerto Rican Context
    Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed., Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group, Phila., PA, Chapter 7, p.93-105 1998

    This chapter provides an overview of elder mistreatment in Puerto Rico. Four major studies are reviewed: Munoz (1985) with the significant finding that abuse is correlated to aging and dependency; Arroyo (1992) which draws upon research from professionals and practitioners in various elder care roles; Ramos-Tossa (1991) which addresses elder mistreatment in long-term care settings; Baba, Colon and Cruz (1996) which addresses domestic violence towards women aged 60 and over. Legislative limitations are also discussed. Poverty, ageism, and the concept of familismo contribute to the invisibility of elder abuse in this culture.


  21. N4672-13
    Tomita, S.
    Exploration of Elder Mistreatment Among the Japanese
    Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed., Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group, Phila., PA; Chapter 9, 119-139, 1998

    In this chapter, the impact of cultural norms upon Japanese-American elder mistreatment is explored. The study builds upon earlier research (Pillemer & Wolf; Anetzberger, Korbin & Tomita) by using the "grounded theory" of ongoing comparative data analysis of 22 semi-structured interviews with Japanese-Americans in Seattle and Hawaii. Cultural themes that emerge are discussed and center around the core category of "group above self," and include the concepts of dual and multiple selves, hiding of individual problems and Japanese wrongdoings, male dominance, and unaccountability. Excerpts from transcripts illustrate issues of domestic violence that were present throughout the marital lives of some participants.


  22. N4676-11
    Nerenberg, L.
    Culturally Specific Outreach in Elder Abuse
    Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed., Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group, Phila., PA; Chapter 13, 205-220, 1998

    Noting that cultural norms greatly influence perceptions of elder mistreatment and the acceptance of outreach services, the author examines some experiences of existing programs in order to offer guidelines in developing culturally specific services. Included is a history of the San Francisco Consortium for Elder Abuse Prevention, coordinated by the Goldman Institute on Aging. The Consortium has grown to a network of 78 public and private agencies that provide services and support to their respective clients who are at risk of, or are experiencing, elder abuse. A fundamental principle of this model is that pre-existing agencies are socially, culturally and geographically equipped to provide services to particular populations. SHE (Self Help for the Elderly, a multiservice agency serving primarily Chinese elders), "We Are Family," (a program geared towards the African-American community through churches) and an attempt to develop outreach to the Latino groups in the Mission district are highlighted. In discussing the successes and shortcomings of these programs, the author identifies ways in which culturally specific strategies may be counter to traditional outreach efforts, yet more effective in serving minorities.


  23. N4677-11
    Rittman, M., Kuzmeskus, L. & Flum, M.
    A Synthesis of Current Knowledge on Minority Elder Abuse
    Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed., Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group, Phila., PA; Chapter 14, 221-238, 1998

    This chapter provides an overview of elder abuse research conducted on four minority groups: Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian Americans. In surveying the literature, it is noted that little research on minority populations exists and that often the sample sizes of the studies limit the generalizability of the findings. However, the available research illustrates culturally specific factors (such as core values) that may contribute to abuse, impede the victim's ability or desire to report or to seek help, and help to maintain the invisibility of elder mistreatment within minority populations. The authors recommend that future research explore the impact of social issues such as racism and poverty as well as cultural specificity.


  24. N4678-12
    Hudson, M. & Carlson, J.
    Elder Abuse: Its Meaning to Caucasians, African Americans, and Native Americans
    Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed., Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group, Phila., PA; Chapter 12, 187-204, 1998

    This chapter reports on one aspect of a study designed to assess varying perceptions of elder abuse. This research is built upon an earlier Delphi study by the authors using an expert panel's taxonomy and definition of elder abuse. In this discussion, the perceptions of three cultural groups are compared: Caucasians, African-Americans and Native Americans. While there appears to be a high level of agreement between public perception of abuse and the experts taxonomy, some cultural differences were observed. Generally, Native Americans ranked more items as abusive, and with a higher degree of severity, than did African-Americans. In turn, African-Americans rated more items as abusive and with a higher degree of severity than did Caucasians.


  25. N4846-10
    Hall, J.
    Abuse of Black Elders in Rhode Island
    From Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed.; Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group, Phila., PA, Chapter 2, 13-25, 1998

    In this chapter the author draws upon twenty years of experience in Rhode Island's Department of Elderly Affairs (DEA) to describe some of the factors that contribute to the under-reporting of elder abuse and under-utilization of social services within the Black community. In 1996, Black victims accounted for only 11of 900 ethnic reports of elder abuse. Family values appear to inhibit going outside the informal network for assistance, and reinforce denial of intrafamilial mistreatment. The author challenges professionals to examine their belief systems in order to develop heightened sensitivity to the possibility of abuse and neglect.


  26. N4845-12
    Brown, A.
    Patterns of Abuse Among Native American Elderly
    From Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed.; Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group, Phila., PA, Chapter 10, 143-159, 1998

    The author reviews the limited research on elder abuse in Native American communities, including the 1992 Plains Indian Elder Abuse Study (Maxwell and Maxwell), which related financial abuse to economic limitations of a poor community, and the Older Navajo Elder Abuse Survey (Brown, 1989 and Brown, Fernandez and Griffith, 1990). The latter study substantiated the prevalence of various types of abuse, with neglect being the most prevalent. The tendency to share the responsibility of caring for dependent elders increased the likelihood of neglect. Factors that mitigate against as well as contribute to elder abuse are explored. The development of "family/clan support groups" for respite, care provision and other aspects of support are among the recommendations outlined.


  27. N4831-13
    Tatara, T.
    Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations - Introduction
    Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group Group, Philadelphia, PA, 1998

    This entry contains the Preface, Introduction, Table of Contents and List of Contributors for Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations, edited by Toshio Tatara, former director of the National Center on Elder Abuse. In the Preface, the editor outlines this collection of research on elder abuse in ethnic populations and in the Introduction discusses population trends and projections for Black, Hispanic, Asian-American and Native American elders, as well as known incidence and prevalence of elder abuse among these groups. Contributors to this volume include Donna Benton, Arnold Brown, Liner Ward Griffin, Margaret Hudson, Ailee Moon, Lisa Nerenberg, Yolanda Sanchez and Susan Tomita. (Note: This book is not available through CANE.)


  28. N4832-9
    Moon, A.
    Elder Abuse and Neglect Among the Korean Elderly in the United States
    From Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations; T. Tatara, ed., Brunner/Mazel - Taylor & Francis Group Group, Philadelphia, PA, Chapter 8, 109-118, 1998

    In this chapter the author provides an overview of elder mistreatment within the Korean-American community. The history of Korean immigration is described since the 1960's when adult children began emigrating to the U.S. and later sponsoring their parents. It is noted that elders are vulnerable to mistreatment because they have a more difficult time adjusting to the American culture, language and social system. The traditional patriarchal transfer of property to the adult son is considered as it relates to research indicating that financial exploitation is the most frequently noted, and tolerated, form of mistreatment. Research on the second most commonly identified type of elder abuse, psychological abuse, is also described. Cultural specificity appears operant in elders' perceptions of mistreatment. Cross-cultural research is also reviewed, comparing Korean-American perceptions to those of African-American and Caucasians. The tendencies of valuing family over individuals, fearing family shame, and avoiding conflict indicate that cultural as well as societal barriers are in part responsible for the Korean elders' reluctance to seek outside, formal services in addressing abuse. (Note: This book is not available through CANE.)


  29. A104-4
    Sterritt, P. & Pokorny, M.
    African-American Caregiving for a Relative with Alzheimer's Disease
    Geriatric Nursing; 19 (3), 127-134, May/June 1998

    This study explores the meaning of caregiving for nine African-Americans providing care for relatives diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Four major themes emerge: caregiving as traditional; caregiving as an act of love; social support as a mediator of the caregiver burden; and caregiving as a female responsibility.


  30. K4188-11
    Kosberg, J.
    The Abuse of Elderly Men
    Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; 9 (3), 69-88, 1998

    This article discusses the high rates of self-abuse by elderly men and their high risk of abuse by others when they are lonely, living in inner cities, incarcerated, or homosexual. Abuse of elderly men occurs in domestic settings by spouses, children, relatives, and friends, and in institutional settings by paid employees. The article discusses varying situations that precede occurrences of abuse of elderly men that affect the quality of their lives.


  31. N4833-11
    Moon, A., Lubben, J., Villa, V. with a commentary by Cho, P.J.
    Awareness and Utilization of Community Long-Term Care Services by Elderly Korean and Non-Hispanic White Americans
    The Gerontologist; 38 (3), 309-316, 1998

    This study explores the link between lack of awareness and underutilization of long-term community-based services by Korean-Americans. Two-hundred-twenty-three Korean-American elders were compared with 201 non-Hispanic Whites regarding their awareness and utilization of 15 services available in Los Angeles County. Among the services examined, Korean-Americans had an awareness rate of 4% or less of services other than senior centers and transportation, compared to a 30% or greater awareness rate among the Whites. This survey suggests that Korean-American participants use services that they were aware of; therefore, the authors recommend increased outreach efforts through cultural channels such as the Korean-American media, churches and religious organizations. However, in the accompanying commentary, Pill Jay Cho challenges that it is service resistance due to the perceived cultural inappropriateness of particular services, rather than unawareness, that results in underutilization.


  32. K4190-11
    Hudson, M., Armachain, W., Beasley, C., and Carlson, J.
    Elder abuse: Two Native American Views
    The Gerontologist; Vol. 38 (5), 538-548, 1998

    This article investigates differences in perceptions of elder abuse and neglect between racially diverse samples consisting of 202 Native Americans, 424 Caucasians, and 318 African-Americans in North Carolina. Participants completed the Elder Abuse Vignette Scale (EAVS) and the Elements of Elder Abuse Scale (EEAS). Relevant research findings are discussed.


  33. N4703-300
    Archstone Foundation & the National Center on Elder Abuse, publishers.
    Understanding and Combating Elder Abuse in Minority Communities
    NCEA and the Archstone Foundation, Long Beach, CA, June 6, 1997
    Papers presented at a national conference on elder abuse in minority communities, sponsored by the NCEA and the Archstone Foundation, Long Beach, CA, June 6, 1997

    This publication is a collection of the keynote addresses, presentations and discussions of the "Understanding and Combating Elder Abuse in Minority Communities" conference, held June 25-27, 1997, in Long Beach, California. Papers are entered as individual holdings through CANE; for information regarding the complete 300 page publication, contact the Archstone Foundation, 401 E. Ocean Blvd., Suite 1000, Long Beach, CA 90802, telephone (562) 590 8655

    NOTE : The following series of papers are included in the publication entitled Understanding and Combating Elder Abuse in Minority Communities (see N4703-300):


  34. N4681-12
    Stanford, E.
    Diversity in an Aging Society: Abuse the Wild Card
    (see N4703-300)

    In his keynote address, the presenter discusses the concepts of micro and macro societal abuses.


  35. N4882-12
    Harrison, Y
    Tell Me What I Said: Do You Really Understand
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper illustrates cultural barriers that may inhibit accurate assessment of elder abuse. Segments include the dialogue of an elderly African-American female and its translation, a case example of an impoverished couple unable to provide care for themselves or each other, a synopsis of elder protective services goals in Louisiana, and case study questions.


  36. N4684-12
    Le, Q.K.
    Assessment of Relationships Among Vietnamese Elders and Their Families
    (see N4703-300)

    This presentation describes the history of the Vietnamese migration to America following the fall of Saigon in 1975. The disintegration of the traditional family structure, in which elders occupied the dominant position, along with the cultural and psychological transitions, contribute to the vulnerability of the elderly Vietnamese. This study explores the possibility of elder mistreatment within the Vietnamese American community. The sample consisted of 20 Vietnamese respondents aged 63-96 who resided with family and were at least minimally dependent upon adult children for assistance. Psychological intimidation was the most prevalent type of abuse, with silence and avoidance considered culturally a most devastating experience. While neglect was also reported, there were no incidents of physical abuse reported in this study. Practical recommendations to prevent and identify abuse are offered and include an emphasis on family education as well as English as a second language classes to introduce western culture and socialization.


  37. N4685-12
    Otiniano, M., Herrera, C. & Teasdale, T.
    Criminal and Non-Criminal Victimization
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper reports on a study of the rate of older victims of criminal activity in Houston, Texas. In particular, the study compares the rates of criminal and non-criminal, violent and non-violent activities against White, African-American, Hispanic and Asian elders from 1990-1994.


  38. N4683-32
    LaCounte, J., Clouse, J., Eagle Shield, J. & Barber, R.
    (see N4703-300)
    Elder Abuse in Indian Country: Where Are We

    This paper presents an overview on the topic of elder mistreatment in the Indian Country and also presents recent research findings. A detailed checklist of behavioral, physical and emotional indicators of abuse is provided, along with a "dating of bruises" guide. Steps toward the development of an Elder Protection Code are outlined. As a model to be customized to meet the needs of other tribes, the Elder and Adult Protection Code adopted by the National Council of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation is included.


  39. N4686-20
    Robison, D., Bubb, J., Beach, G. et al
    Elder Abuse Prevention Campaigns for Special Audiences: African-American, Hispanic and Rural Elderly
    (see N4703-300)

    This presentation reports on the "Elder Pennsylvanians Deserve Honor and Respect, Not Abuse" campaign, an outreach approach customized for African-Americans, Hispanics and the rural elderly. The model may be adapted or replicated for use in other communities. The use of focus groups, telephone interviews, radio, cultural newspapers and direct mail, grass roots organizations, churches and social organizations are highlighted.


  40. N4687-16
    Carson, D. & Hand, C.
    Dilemmas Surrounding Elder Abuse and Neglect Within Native American Communities
    (see N4703-300)

    This presentation explores the means of addressing domestic conflicts within Tribal communities that build upon cultural core values. Briefly described are the culturally inherent protective factors (such as extended family networks, emphasis on family and Tribal interdependence, community conscience, spirituality, respect for elders) as well as risk factors (including acculturation stress upon family and Tribe due to government impositions, poverty, unemployment, gradual loosening of extended family ties). Recognition and utilization of Tribal sovereignty and an ecosystems perspective are encouraged as more effective means of addressing elder abuse within this group. (The paper also includes a table of the Major Tribal/Federal Policy Relationships throughout U.S. history.)


  41. N4688-22
    Brown, A.
    A Service Provider Perspective of Native American Elder Abuse: A Research Report
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper reports on a survey conducted to determine how service providers view elder abuse on the Navajo Reservation. The study (1990, under a grant from the Indian Health Service) explored types of abuse, recurrence of abuse, intentionality, and abuser profile. The respondents, all 152 service providers, representing a complete range of legal, Tribal, health and social services, were also interviewed regarding the general quality of care of Navajo elders. In general, the service providers viewed abuse as a serious problem throughout the reservation, intentional and recurrent in nature. Neglect and exploitation were seen as the most common types of abuse. Cultural orientation appeared to influence perceptions regarding verbal abuse and financial exploitation.


  42. N4689-16
    Mitchell, B. & Festa, N.
    Maltreatment of Minority Elders: Attitudes and Perceptions of APS Workers in Texas
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper reports on the Texas APS survey conducted to assess cultural competence among protective service professionals and to learn about patterns of elder maltreatment in minority populations. The Cultural Competence Self Assessment Questionnaire (CCSAQ) was modified and administered to 384 APS staff with a response rate of 94%. Researchers indicate that while no significant information regarding patterns of maltreatment was discovered, information regarding how staff observe the phenomenon should prove useful in further training and policy planning.


  43. N4690-14
    Benton, D.
    Risk Factors for Elder Mistreatment Among African-Americans
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper identifies the risk factors of elder mistreatment that are more pronounced among the African-American population. Demographic data reveals a higher proportion of African-Americans meeting multiple risk factors for abuse as compared to other ethnic groups (living alone, poverty, frailty) that may increase vulnerability to abuse from perpetrators outside the family. In multigenerational households, African-Americans provide a higher percentage of caregiving assistance than other ethnic groups. Research identifying financial abuse as "particularly unacceptable" is cited, along with differences in the African-American abuser profile. Higher rates of domestic violence, and violence in general, are also noted as risk factors.


  44. N4691-11
    Cosio-Franco, A.
    Maltreatment of Mexican-American Elders in Texas - An Overview
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper reports on one phase of Texas Adult Protective Services efforts to enhance cultural sensitivity in service provision. Racially balanced focus groups of APS caseworkers, supervisors, and administrators were conducted to assimilate "front line" perceptions regarding the patterns of abuse in minority populations. "La Familia" emerged as a cultural core value within the Mexican-American tradition that likely limits the elder in admitting to victimization and in accepting help, and may contribute to the tolerance of financial exploitation. "Verguenza," the concept of shame, is also noted. Language barriers and welfare reform are briefly discussed as obstacles in providing services, particularly to those cases involving severe neglect.


  45. N4692-17
    Anetzberger, G.
    Psychological Abuse and Neglect: A Cross-Cultural Concern to Older Americans
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper reports on the experience of psychological abuse and neglect from four different ethnic perspectives. Data is analyzed from ethnic focus groups and twenty-nine retrospective case reviews of psychological abuse and neglect investigations from the Benjamin Rose Institute. Emotional support was viewed as the "best thing" families can offer elders, and psychological abuse and neglect was seen as the "worst thing." The perception of psychological abuse differs from culture to culture. In reviewing the case documentation, the more effective interventions in abuse cases focus on the perpetrator and include counseling, education, social support and respite, while the more effective interventions of neglect cases focus on the victim and include means to increase socialization and stimulation.


  46. N4695-11
    Arteaga, R. & Mitchell, B.
    Building Bridges to Address the Needs of Undocumented Minorities
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper discusses the potential impact that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), welfare reforms and recent changes in immigration laws may have had upon the elderly and disabled living in regions bordering along Mexico.


  47. N4697-16
    Nordstrom, N.
    Working With Perpetrators of Elder Abuse
    (see N4703-300)

    In this paper, a family systems therapist and APS supervisor outlines therapeutic strategies to address perpetrator behaviors. Emphasis is placed on the need for the practitioner to be culturally sensitive to traditional values and sanctions as they work with families from diverse backgrounds.


  48. N4875-11
    Baladerian, N.
    Recognizing Abuse and Neglect in People with Severe Cognitive and/or Communication Impairments
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper explores the cultural barriers to the detection of abuse and neglect among individuals with cognitive and communicative limitations.


  49. N4700-18
    Wolf, R.
    Research Track
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper provides an overview of relevant research on elder abuse in domestic settings regarding such factors as prevalence, risk, culture/ethnicity and dementia.


  50. N4701-17
    Aravanis, S.
    Aging Network: Lessons Learned about Minority Outreach and Advice for the Elder Abuse Field
    (see N4703-300)

    In this paper, the presenter discusses culturally sensitive outreach strategies. Examples of conferences geared to specific ethnic groups are included.


  51. N4702-17
    Philibert-Ortega, G.
    Spousal Abuse in Elderly Hispanic Women
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper provides an overview of the topic of domestic violence, particularly as it is experienced by older, Hispanic women. Language and cultural barriers, immigration status and financial concerns are among the service delivery issues discussed.


  52. N4698-15
    Dyer, C. B., Gleason, M., Pace, K. et al
    An Interdisciplinary Approach to Recognition and Intervention in Elder Abuse/Neglect
    (see N4703-300)

    In this presentation, the authors describe their experiences of serving elder minorities in Houston, Texas, through the Geriatric Program at Harris County Hospital District. Presenters describe the process involved in identification of abuse and neglect in minority populations, a training program that addresses medical and social issues, and the development of a research database.


  53. N4694
    Fang, L.
    Elder Abuse in the Chinese Community
    (see N4703-300)

    This paper describes "Self-Help for the Elderly," a multi-service social agency and care organization. Based in San Francisco, the staff serves over 25,000 seniors, many of whom are Chinese. The paper outlines the culturally specific reasons suspected for the under-reporting of elder abuse in this population, and the methods the organization is attempting to implement to remedy this tendency.


  54. N4839-16
    Chang, J. and Moon, A.
    Korean-American Elderly's Knowledge and Perceptions of Abuse: A Qualitative Analysis of Cultural Factors
    Journal of Multicultural Social Work; 6(1/2),139-154, 1997

    This study explores the perceptions of elder abuse held by Korean-American elders based upon personal experiences. Over 100 Korean-American residents of Los Angeles County, aged 60 and over, were interviewed regarding their awareness of instances of elder abuse. Thirty-four participants identified 46 instances of abuse, categorized into six types, that had occurred during the past year. Of the six types of mistreatment, the most commonly recognized was financial abuse (an adult child taking a parent's Supplemental Security Income), and the second most frequently identified was psychological abuse. Disrespect, particularly by daughters-in-law, was a recurrent theme. Eight incidents of culturally specific abuse were noted, including placing a frail elderly parent in a nursing home. The authors discuss how cultural influences such as Confucianism and filial piety ("Hyo") provide a framework for the elders' perception of mistreatment.


  55. K4197-8
    Cook-Daniels, L.
    Lesbian, Gay Male, Bisexual and Transgendered Elders: Elder Abuse and Neglect Issues
    Journal of Abuse and Neglect; 9 (2), 35-49, 1997

    This article, based on the author's experience with and knowledge of lesbian and gay elders, examines elder abuse and neglect issues surrounding lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered individuals. The article discusses how being a lesbian, gay, or bisexual impacts upon an elder's need for, and willingness to accept assistance from, adult protective services.


  56. J4038-9
    Watson, J. & Koblinsky, S.
    Strengths and Needs of Working-Class African-American and Anglo-American Grandparents
    International Journal of Aging and Human Development; 44 (2), 149-165, 1997

    This article focuses upon the differences in roles, and perceptions, between African-American and Anglo-American grandparents. Six factors are examined to judge the strengths and needs of the grandparents: satisfaction, success, teaching, difficulty, frustration and information needs. The article     also discusses how both groups address these needs.


  57. L4392-10
    Connell, C.M. & Gibson, G.D.
    Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Differences in Dementia Caregiving: Review and Analysis
    The Gerontologist; 37(3), 355-364, 1997

    This study reviews and analyzes empirical research that examines the impact of race, culture and ethnicity on the experience of caregiving for an elder with dementia. Ten out of twelve of the studies reviewed examined the differences between Black and White caregivers. One of the studies compared White and Hispanic caregivers. Non-White caregivers were less likely to be a spouse and more likely to be an adult child, friend or other family member. They reported less caregiver stress, burden and depression, they tended to hold stronger beliefs in family support and relied upon faith as a coping strategy.


  58. J4024-16
    Lichtenberg, P., Chapleski, E. & Younngblade, L.
    The Effect of Depression on Functional Abilities Among Great Lakes American Indians
    Journal of Applied Gerontology; 16 (2), 235-248, 1997

    This study examines depression in elderly American Indians. Researchers used Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) as measures of functional ability. Depression appears to contribute to co-morbid medical illness.


  59. A85-7
    Montoya, V.
    Understanding and Combating Elder Abuse in Hispanic Communities
    Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect; 9 (2), 5-17, 1997

    This article focuses on elder abuse and domestic violence in the Hispanic culture. Aspects of Hispanic culture, including the Church, the family, the community, and the individual are examined. Additionally, strategies to combat elder abuse are presented. The author indicates that the Hispanic culture does not lead to violence any more than any other ethnic or racial culture, but rather, that America's sociopolitical economic system continues to support educational and employment discrimination, which contributes to the poverty associated with elder abuse.


  60. J4098-8
    Brownell, P.
    The Application of the Culturagram in Cross-Cultural Practice with Elder Abuse Victims
    Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect; 9 (2), 19-33, 1997

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the application of the Culturagram to the assessment, detection, and development of intervention strategies for addressing elder abuse involving older immigrants and their families. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of the Culturagram with families from such diverse backgrounds as China, Poland, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and India/South Asia.


  61. J4079-7
    Le, Q.K.
    Mistreatment of Vietnamese Elderly by Their Family Members in the United States
    Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect; 9 (2), 51-62, 1997

    This study explores the results of a research project focused on the relationships between Vietnamese elders and their families living in Santa Clara County, California. Cultural factors such as dependency, personal indebtedness, and other factors that may be associated with elder mistreatment are discussed. Culturally specific issues are explored and recommendations are made that could improve the well being of Vietnamese elders and their families.


  62. J4078-8
    Pablo, S. & Braun, K.
    Perceptions of Elder Abuse and Neglect and Help-Seeking Patterns Among Filipino and Korean Elderly Women in Honolulu
    Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect; 9 (2), 63-76, 1997

    This paper explores the help-seeking patterns of elder abuse services of Filipino and Korean women in Honolulu. The participants were asked to respond to mistreatment scenarios, then the results were examined and compared to earlier research using the same methodology. Surprisingly, the respondents were more similar in their responses to Caucasian than Korean participants from a study conducted previously in Minnesota. One theory for this was that Asian-Americans in Honolulu had greater access to culturally appropriate services than minorities in mid-western U.S. communities.


  63. A78-7
    Baladerian, N.
    Recognizing Abuse and Neglect in People with Severe Cognitive and/or Communication Impairments
    Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect; 9 (2), 93-104, 1997

    This article notes the lack of information about protective services for the developmentally disabled population and lack of coordination between agencies serving this group. Signs and symptoms of abuse of the developmentally disabled, alternative interviewing and communication strategies, and specialized assessment skills are explored. The author concludes with policy recommendations for local, state and federal efforts.


  64. A76-9
    Nagpaul, K.
    Elder Abuse Among Asian Indians: Traditional Versus Modern Perspectives
    Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; 9 (2), 77-92, 1997

    This article presents an historical summary of India's dominant social structure and cultural values, followed by an examination of different perspectives of elder abuse among Asian Indians. The effects of modernization in India are explored within the context of elder abuse. Elder abuse among Asian Indians in the United States is explored through the use of a focus group responding to a series of seven hypothetical situations. Implications for India's policies, programs, and practice are discussed.


  65. A95-83
    A Manual for Implementing Elder Abuse Prevention - Media Campaigns for Special Audiences: African-American, Hispanic and Rural Elders
    Developed by Beach Advertising and University Research Corporation for the Department of Aging; Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, June 1996
    Funded in part by the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency Grant #94-DS-5310

    This manual showcases the development and implementation of the "Honor and Respect" Elder Abuse Prevention Media and Community Outreach campaign of Pennsylvania.


  66. N4834-14
    Anetzberger, G., Korbin, J., Tomita, S.
    Defining Elder Mistreatment in Four Ethnic Groups Across Two Generations
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology; 11,187-212, 1996

    In this study, researchers analyze the cultural perceptions of elder mistreatment among two generations of four different ethnic groups: European-American, African-American, Puerto Rican and Japanese-American. The 62 focus group participants were questioned regarding the best and worst treatment of elders and how they would respond if aware of elder abuse, and then presented with several hypothetical scenarios. All groups identified emotional support as the best thing that family members could offer elders. However, cultural differences were evident. Psychological neglect was identified as the worst treatment by the European American and Puerto Rican groups, and psychological abuse was identified as the worst among the African-American and Japanese-American groups. Differences in the response to mistreatment were also noted, as were both similarities and differences to earlier cultural research findings. The authors observe that the very conditions that most participants found unacceptable, being isolated, unloved, and emotionally neglected, are not currently being studied or identified by maltreatment protocols.


  67. J3838-7
    Clark-Daniels, C.L. & Daniels, R.S.
    Street-Level Decision Making in Elder Mistreatment Policy: An Empirical Case Study of Service Rationing
    Social Science Quarterly; 76 (2), 460-473, June 1995

    This study examines street-level decision making in the elder mistreatment policy area. Four types of social workers' decision are investigated with regard to the importance of degree of discretion permitted, case load size and level of resources. Of the cases studied, there appears to be racial differences in the filtering of allegations and levels of intervention.


  68. N4558-24
    Williams, O., Jaaber, R. & Murrell, W.
    Service Delivery to African-American Men Who Batter
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Community Services
    May 31 - June 2, 1995
    Domestic violence, African-Americans, Model programs, Cultural

    This paper was presented during a conference of the Institute on Domestic Violence in the African-American Community, held in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1995. The presenter (Williams) discusses the need for cultural research to promote a greater effectiveness in treatment interventions for batterers who are African-American (and from other minority groups). He details both the positive and negative aspects of "colorblindness" as it impacts on service delivery. Program evaluation is critical to determine for whom treatment is effective, with adaptations implemented to address those who are not being effectively served. Reconciliation of the "conventional wisdom" with the African-American perspective is proposed, along with development of an African-American community competence in response to the problem of domestic violence. In his response, Jaaber describes "The Empowerment Project" of Charlotte, N.C., and its resultant curriculum, "The Kinship Journey," as examples of culturally competent treatment programs. Murrell describes the Lima-Urban Minority Alcohol and Drug Abuse Outreach Program as another example of a culturally appropriate response.


  69. I3691-14
    Griffin, L.W.
    Elder Maltreatment Among Rural African-Americans
    Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; 6 (1), 1-17, 1994

    This paper describes an exploratory study of abused African-American elders and the suspected perpetrators of that abuse. Extensive interviews were conducted with the alleged victims and perpetrators, with special focus on the nature of the abuse and the relationships involved. The sample was drawn from residents of three rural eastern North Carolina counties.


  70. I3781-19
    Groger, L.
    Limit of Support and Reaction to Illness: An Exploration of Black Elders' Pathway to Long-Term Care Settings
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology; 9, 369-387, 1994

    This paper explores the differences between two similarly impaired groups of Black elders: those who were placed in nursing homes and those who received in-home care. Overall, the in-home patients strived for independence and viewed themselves as competent. Nursing home residents appeared overwhelmed by comparable health issues, and appeared to adopt self-images of incompetence. The influence of support on self-perception is examined.


  71. I3784-14
    Tomita, S.
    The Consideration of Cultural Factors in the Research of Elder Mistreatment with an In-depth Look at the Japanese
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology; 9, 39-52, 1994

    This paper explores cultural factors that may be associated with family conflict and elder mistreatment among the Japanese, including the use of silence as an extreme form of punishment. The interactions of such factors as dependency, social obligation, personal indebtedness, filial piety are considered. The author provides culturally sensitive suggestions for practitioners working with Asian victims of elder mistreatment.


  72. H3282-10
    Moon, A. & Williams, O.
    Perceptions of Elder Abuse and Help-seeking Patterns Among African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American Elderly Women
    The Gerontologist; 33 (3), 386-395, June 1993

    This study was conducted to observe whether elderly women's perceptions of elder abuse, and therefore help-seeking patterns, varied according to ethnic background. Thirty elders of each ethnic group (African-Americans, Caucasians and Korean-Americans) were directly interviewed. Pronounced differences between the groups' perceptions emerged, with Korean-American women least likely to identify a situation as abusive. The differences in perceptions appear linked to help-seeking tendencies.


  73. I3618-18
    Tatara, T. & Stein, K.
    Research Notes
    Older Americans Act/National Eldercare Campaign; Washington, D.C., October 1993
    Funded in part by an Administration on Aging Grant # 90-AM-0499

    This paper summarizes relevant research studies on elder abuse, neglect and exploitation. It was designed for professionals of aging and adult protective services, with an emphasis on practical considerations.


  74. I3675-9
    Griffin, L. & Williams, O.
    Abuse Among African-American Elderly
    Journal of Family Violence; 7 (1), 19-35, 1992
    This article presents data regarding the maltreatment of African-American elders. Victim and perpetrator characteristics, history, cultural traditions, unique features of the African-American informal support networks, phenomenon of violence, and issues regarding accessibility and use of services are among the topics discussed.


  75. G3222-35
    Stein, K.
    Working with Abused and Neglected Elders in Minority Populations: A Synthesis of Research
    National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse, Washington, D.C., September 1991
    Funded in part by Administration on Aging Grant #90-AM-0332

    This publication reviews the relevant literature and reports major findings to enhance the cultural competence of practitioners dealing with elder abuse. American Indian, Hispanic, Asian and Black elderly populations are studied. Cultural barriers to effective service delivery are among specific topics explored.


  76. C1692-21
    Dilworth-Anderson, P.
    Risk Factors of Elder Abuse in Caregiving to the Elderly in African-American Families
    Presented at Family Conflict and Elder Abuse (workshop); National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD, May 1991

    The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors for elder abuse in Black families using a contextual approach as the conceptual focus. Family caregiving is discussed in terms of situational risk factors associated with violent and abusive behaviors.


  77. F3081-8
    Wood, J. & Parham, I.
    Coping with Perceived Burden: Ethnic and Cultural Issues in Alzheimer's Family Caregiving
    Journal of Applied Gerontology; 9 (3), 325-339, 1990

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differential patterns of coping with the strain of providing care for Alzheimer's patients among families of various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. The results suggest that ethnic and cultural considerations be incorporated for greater effectiveness in interventions.


  78. E2907-94
    American Indians and Elder Abuse: Exploring the Problem
    National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse, Washington, D.C., 1989

    This report, which resulted from a meeting of representatives from the Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council, Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona, and the Yakima Indian Nation, provides an overview of questions, concerns and recommendations which have the potential to assist American Indian tribes and their elders to address the problem of abuse.


  79. E2690-5
    Smerglia, V., Deimling, G. & Barresi, C.
    Black/White Family Comparisons in Helping and Decision Making Networks of Impaired Elderly
    Family Relations; 37, 305-309, 1988

    This study differentiates the roles of kin and formal caregiver in instrumental care and decision-making using interviews with 19 White and 51 Black family caregivers. Results indicate that there are few differences in the sizes of networks. However, Whites are twice as likely to participate in decisions about their own care.


  80. E2657-25
    The Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council, Inc., Cynthia LaCounte, Project Coordinator
    Effective Public Awareness Efforts in Tribal Communities
    Project funded in part by Administration on Aging Grant #90-AMO215, 1988

    This document outlines the Elder Abuse Public Awareness efforts of ten Wisconsin tribes that are members of the Great Lakes Inter-Tribe Council, Inc. (GLITC). This organization identified the problem of elder abuse and decided that each tribe would develop a Public Awareness Campaign to address the needs of their communities. This report documents the events and products that were developed during this project in order to prevent elder abuse within the tribes.


  81. E2826-90
    Yakima Indian Nation
    Don't Wound My Spirit - Yakima Indian Nations' Guide to Protecting Elders from Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation
    Project funded in part by Administration on Aging Grant #90AM0214, 1987

    The purpose of this guide is to educate Indian and Non-Indian advocates and counselors about the laws and customs embodied in both the tribal and state systems.


  82. E2914-11
    Beckett, J. & Coley, S.
    Ecological Intervention with the Elderly: A Case Example
    Journal of Gerontological Social Work; 11, 137-157, 1987

    This paper discusses an intervention model, the ecological systems perspective, and a related tool, the Eco-Map, as being particularly relevant for service delivery to the Black elderly. The model is applied to a case involving one Black family in which a younger member is the identified patient, but the father becomes identified as needing assistance. Intervention strategies are discussed.


  83. G3208-11
    Hall, P.
    Minority Elder Maltreatment: Ethnicity, Gender, Age, and Poverty
    Ethnicity and Gerontological Social Work; 53-72, 1987

    Comparison of 126 minority and 161 non-minority instances of elder maltreatment produced no compelling profile of differences between the groups, although there are implications for both study and practice. Within the minority sub-sample, differences in ethnic group, gender, age and income provide some information: Hispanics have a less developed social support system; female-male distinctions focus on mortality rate and types of maltreatment; and the poor may form a sub-group of isolates.


  84. C1398-9
    Manton, K., Blazer, D. & Woodbury, M.
    Suicide in Middle Age and Later Life: Sex and Race Specific Life Table and Cohort Analyses
    Journal of Gerontology; 42 (2), 219-227, 1987

    Drawing upon data from 1962 through 1981 (National Center for Health Statistics) this article discusses the prevalence rate of suicide among the elderly while exploring variables of gender, race and age. The "oldest-old" (aged 85 and over) as well as non-White males appear to have an increased risk of suicide.


  85. C2303-4
    Egeland, J. & Sussex, J.
    Suicide and Family Loading for Affective D

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