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August 28, 2007


The Source of Information and Assistance on Elder Abuse

Clearinghouse on Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly (CANE)
Annotated Bibliography:

The Scope of Elder Abuse

In order to develop appropriate prevention and intervention initiatives, professionals and advocates in the aging services fields have repeatedly identified the need for empirical data that gives us insight into the number elderly people who are abused. Generally, the scope of the problem can be measured in three ways: Prevalence studies measure the total number of cases of elder abuse in a particular population at a specific time; incidence studies measure the number of new cases in a population over a period of time; and we can also estimate the scope of elder abuse by examining data collected from reports made to various agencies.

The complexity of defining elder abuse, and debate over classification of types of mistreatment, compound the task of evaluating the magnitude of the problem. Some of the risk factors for elder mistreatment, such as isolation, add to its "invisibility". Inadequate funding for research and state-to-state incompatibilities in tracking protective service statistics also contribute to the paucity of national studies. The National Research Council reports that "no survey of the U.S. population has ever been undertaken to provide a national estimate for the occurrence of any form of elder mistreatment." (Bonnie, R. and Wallace, R., Editors, Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation in an Aging America, National Academies Press; Washington, D.C.; 2003, p. xiii,

Despite these research challenges, efforts have been made to quantify the phenomenon of elder abuse throughout the United States and in other countries. The following resources highlight studies that attempt to measure the scope of various types of elder abuse. Some studies, such as the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (National Center on Elder
Abuse, 1998) are broad in scale, while others, such as "A Survey on Elder Abuse at One Native American Tribe," (Brown, 1989) are much narrower in focus.

The bibliography is divided into three segments. The first section contains references for U.S. national studies, and the second contains references for local, regional, state, and international studies. The final section lists several commentaries, which primarily reference the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study. Most of these reference materials can be obtained through local university and community libraries or interlibrary loan services. Some must be ordered directly through the publisher or production company. When available, contact and pricing information is included with the abstract. Increasingly, many resources are available online, and the web addresses are also included.*

If you have difficulty obtaining any of these materials, please contact the CANE office for assistance by emailing [email protected] or telephoning (302) 831-3525.

In addition to the studies sited below, it should be noted that national surveys were recently conducted in Japan and Israel. We have been in contact with the lead researchers of these studies, and will include citations for these studies in the CANE database when they become available. For more information, continue to monitor the CANE database at:

To review other CANE bibliographies, click here >>.

(*Web addresses may change without notice. If an address provided is no longer accurate, we recommend using a generic search engine, such as Google, to find a current link. If you cannot locate the online publication, contact the CANE offices for assistance.)

The National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) serves as a national resource for elder rights advocates, law enforcement and legal professionals, public policy leaders, researchers, and citizens. It is the mission of NCEA to promote understanding, knowledge sharing, and action on elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation.

The NCEA is administered under the auspices of the National Association of State Units on Aging.

NCEA Partners
        National Association of State Units on Aging (NASUA), Lead Partner
        American Bar Association (ABA) Commission on Law and Aging
        Clearinghouse on Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly (CANE) at the University of Delaware
        National Adult Protective Services Association (NAPSA)
        National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (NCPEA)

This publication was made possible through the support provided by the National Center on Elder Abuse. Major funding for the National Center on Elder Abuse comes from the U.S. Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services.
Grant No. 90-AM-2792.

Opinions or points of view expressed do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Administration on Aging.

U.S. National Studies


1. P5441-6
Jogerst, G. et al.
Domestic Elder Abuse and the Law
American Journal of Public Health; Vol. 93 (12), 2131-2136; December 2003.
Journal article (research)
This study, conducted by researchers at the University of Iowa's Department of Family Medicine, was designed to explore the impact of specific characteristics of state adult protective services legislation upon rates of reporting and investigation of domestic elder abuse. With the exceptions of Georgia, North Dakota (no data to provide), Colorado (inaccurate data) and Ohio (only report data), data was collected from APS administrators throughout the U.S. regarding the number of abuse reports, investigations and substantiations within their states during1999 or fiscal year 1999-2000. The data collected deals only with reports of mistreatment of individuals aged 60 and over. Among the findings, 190,005 reports were made within 17 states (a rate of 8.6 per thousand elders); a total of 242,430 investigations were carried out within 47 states (a rate of 5.5 per thousand elders); and a total of 102,879 substantiated cases were identified from 35 states (2.7 per thousand). Higher investigation rates were found among those states with mandatory reporting legislation (with penalties outlined for failure to report), and substantiation ratios were higher among those states with more detailed abuse definitions. Substantiation ratios were also higher among states that hired separate case workers for child and elder abuse and among states that track reports of abuse. (FOR REPRINTS, contact Dr. Jogerst at [email protected].)

2. P5417-48
Otto, J., Stanis, P. & Marlatt, K., for the National Association of Adult Protective Services Administrators (NAAPSA), for the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA)
2001 Survey Report: State Adult Protective Services Response to Financial Exploitation of Vulnerable Adults
National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA); Washington, D.C.; 2003.
Agency report
In preparation for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services study on financial exploitation of vulnerable adults, the National Association of Adult Protective Services Administrators (NAAPSA) conducted a survey in 2001 of all states, the District of Columbia and Guam, regarding their response to financial abuse cases. Thirty-four states and Guam responded to the mailed questionnaire, 23 using data from the most recent fiscal year, eight from the most recent calendar year. Of the results, 28 states had a combined 38,015 reports of financial exploitation; 29 states had mandatory reporting laws for financial exploitation; 11 states included financial institutions as mandatory reporters. Of the states able to describe sources of reports, only 54 of 18,476 reports were made by banks. Fifty-eight percent of the victims were female, and 64.7 percent were aged 66 and older, with approximately 40 percent of reports made on people between ages 65 and 80. While some states reported that victims appeared of higher income levels than the average APS client, others saw no difference in income level. And, while 24 states have multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) to address financial abuse, only 14.3 percent of these have bank representatives as members on state teams. State Attorneys General and law enforcement received the highest quality ratings in terms of response to APS cases; however, the ratings given ranged from "minimal" to "average" with a few noted exceptions. Only ten states had a registry of financial abusers, and only Oregon was able to estimate the value of loss for the year (totaling between $50,000 and $100,000 for 47 substantiated cases). A significant problem in evaluating the data for this survey, as well as in measuring program effectiveness, is the absence of consistent (or uniform) data tracking across state APS departments. The report includes recommendations, along with a copy of the survey and descriptions of how each participant responded. (Note: This report is available online at the NCEA web site at .)

3. P5283-76
Teaster, P., for the National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (NCPEA), National Association of Adult Protective Services Administrators (NAAPSA), National Association of State Units on Aging (NASUA), for the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA)
A Response to the Abuse of Vulnerable Adults: The 2000 Survey of State Adult Protective Services
National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA); Washington, D.C.; 2003.
Agency report
This publication reports the results of a survey of Adult Protect Services (APS) from fifty states, the District of Columbia and Guam, conducted in 2000 by the National Association of Adult Protective Services Administrators (NAAPSA) for the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA). The survey consisted of 60 items regarding statutory and program information, reporter information, investigatory requirements (including relevant time frames), number of reports received, investigated and substantiated, victim profile and perpetrator profile. While all the states provided information, only Texas was able to complete the survey, while 15 other states were able to answer 85 percent of the survey. Of the findings, the State Study indicates that in 2000 there were 472,813 APS reports of elder/vulnerable adult abuse, that most perpetrators were family members (61.7 percent), in particular, spouses and intimate partners (30.2 percent). Self-neglect was the most commonly reported problem, followed (in order) by neglect by others, financial exploitation and physical abuse (11 percent). (Note: This complete report is available for downloading in .pdf format on the NCEA web site at .)


4. J4071-300
National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA), in collaboration with Westat, Inc.
National Elder Abuse Incidence Study - Final Report
National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA); Washington, D.C.; September, 1998.
Agency report
Full Report - This study estimates that in the U.S., at least one-half million older persons in domestic settings were abused and/or neglected, or experienced self-neglect during 1996. Findings suggest that for every reported incident of elder abuse, neglect or self-neglect, approximately five go unreported. The study was based upon data collected through adult protective services from 15 states, as well as data from "sentinels," specially trained representatives from community-based aging services agencies. The report also analyzes victim and perpetrator characteristics as well as reporter characteristics as they relate to types of mistreatment. (Note: The report, without appendices, is accessible online at
To obtain a print copy of the complete report, including appendices, please send a check for $35.00 made out to CANE-UD to:
Clearinghouse on Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly/CANE
University of Delaware
Department of Consumer Studies
211 Alison Hall West
Newark, DE 19716.
Fee for appendices only: $10.00.)


5. K4154-41
Tatara, T. & Kuzmeskus, L., for the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA)
Summaries of the Statistical Data on Elder Abuse in Domestic Settings for FY 95 and FY 96
National Center of Elder Abuse (NCEA), Washington, D.C.; 1997.
Agency report
As quoted from the foreword: "This summary contains useful information about national estimates of elder abuse, trends reflected in state reports, information regarding reporters, and characteristics of the perpetrators." It is estimated that there were 286,000 reports of domestic elder abuse nationwide in 1995, and 293,000 in 1996. (Note: To order, contact the National Association of State Units on Aging /NASUA, 1201 15th Street, N.W., Suite 350, Washington, D.C. 20005-2800, telephone 202/898-2586 or email [email protected] .Cost: $6.00.)


6. L4376-8
Payne, B. & Cikovic R.
An Empirical Examination of the Characteristics, Consequences, and Causes of Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 7 (4), 61-74; 1995.
Journal article (research)
The present study examines the 488 incidents of patient abuse reported to Medicaid Fraud Control Units throughout the U.S. from 1987 through 1992. Of the incidents reviewed, the majority were committed by nurses aides, and 63 percent were committed by male employees. The most frequent type of abuse identified was physical abuse (84 percent). The authors suggest further research on the gendered nature of elder abuse in nursing homes, employee training regarding abuse, the impact of witnesses on abuse reporting and consequences, and a more detailed analysis of the impact of abuse on the nursing home resident.


7. H3338-43
Tatara, T., for the National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA)
Summaries of the Statistical Data on Elder Abuse in Domestic Settings for FY90 and FY91
National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA); Washington, D.C.; February 1993.
Agency report
The purpose of this study was to develop national summaries of domestic elder abuse statistics for the fiscal years 1990 and 1991 collected by the National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA) from state adult protective services (APS) agencies and state units on aging. Types of abuse, reporters of abuse, as well as victim and abuser profiles were defined. It is estimated that there were 211,000 reports of domestic elder abuse in FY1990 (with 46 of 54 jurisdictions indicating a total of 196,715 reports), and an estimated 227,000 reports in FY1991 (with 43 of 54 jurisdictions indicating a total of 205,815 reports).

8. P5084-12
Tatara, T.
Understanding the Nature and Scope of Domestic Elder Abuse with the Use of State Aggregate Data: Summaries of the Key Findings of a National Survey of State APS and Aging Agencies
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 5 (4), 35-57; 1993.
Journal article (research)
The National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA) conducted a survey of state APS and units on aging agencies and analyzed the number and type of reports of domestic elder abuse for fiscal years 1990 and 1991. In 1990, there were an estimated 211,000 reports, which rose 7.6 percent to 227,000 in 1991. This represented a significant increase from the author's estimate of 140,000 reports in 1988. Service providers were the most frequents reporters (28.1 percent in 1990 and 26.7 percent in 1991). Approximately 55 percent of all reports were substantiated in both years. More than half were substantiated reports of self-neglect. The author also presents a model for developing a national incidence rate based upon these findings wherein there would be nearly 842,000 self-neglectors, and 735,000 abuse and neglect victims for 1991. (Note: The entire report, "Summaries of the Statistical Data for FY 90 and FY 91 - a Final Report," is available under CANE file #H3338-43.)


9. H3279-50
Tatara, T. & Broughton, D., for the National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA)
Institutional Elder Abuse: A Summary of Data Gathered From State Units on Aging, State APS Agencies and State LTC Ombudsman Programs
National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA); Washington, D.C.; August, 1992.
Agency report
In 1991, the NARCEA staff collected state level aggregate data for fiscal years 1988, 1989 and 1990 to develop national estimates on the incidence of institutional elder abuse. Not all states responded, and the types, definitions and extent of available institutional elder abuse data varied among the participating agencies. The survey also found that the number of institutional elder abuse reports received increased steadily from 1988 through 1990.


10. K4317-58
Tatara, T., for the National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA)
Summaries of National Elder Abuse Data: An Exploratory Study of State Statistics Based on a Survey of State Adult Protective Service and Aging Agencies
National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA); February, 1990.
Agency report
The purpose of this report is to provide summaries of the elder abuse statistics for fiscal years 1986, 1987, and 1988 that the National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse (NARCEA) collected from state adult protective service and aging agencies. It is estimated that there were 117,000 domestic reports of elder abuse and neglect made in the U.S. in FY1986, 128,000 in FY1987, and 140,000 in FY1988.


11. D2554-30
Prepared by the Elder Abuse Project American Public Welfare Association (APWA) and the National Association of State Units on Aging (NASUA)
Statistical Data on Elder Abuse, taken from A Comprehensive Analysis of State Policy and Practice Related To Elder Abuse
Elder Abuse Project American Public Welfare Association (APWA); Washington, D.C.; July,1986.
Agency report
At the national level, there are no standardized or uniform definitions of elder abuse. Also, some states do not have clear definitions of elder abuse. A review of the data that states provided to APWA/NASUA on elder abuse reveals several issues/problems which serve as barriers to gathering national statistical data. The biggest problem pertains to the reporting procedures of incidence of elder abuse and neglect. Tables include a state-by-state listing of number of reports of elder abuse, a state-by-state listing of incidence rates and other breakdowns. Incidence rates ranged from 0.2 (Minnesota) to 7.2 (Missouri).

Local, Regional, State, and International Studies


12. P5607-8
Mouton, C. et al.
Prevalence and 3-Year Incidence of Abuse Among Postmenopausal Women
American Journal of Public Health; Vol. 94 (4), 605-612; 2004.
Journal article (research)
Noting that a great deal of research on abuse of older women has focused on the frail and dependent elderly, the authors of this article suggest that such studies were influenced by issues of caregiver abuse and neglect. The goal of this study was to examine the incidence and prevalence of physical abuse and verbal abuse among a cohort of functionally independent, older women. It was also designed to analyze associated sociodemographic factors and health behaviors. Questionnaire responses from 91,749 participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), aged 50 to 79, were analyzed for reports of physical and verbal abuse occurring within the year prior to completing the baseline survey. At baseline, 11.1 percent of the participants reported experiencing abuse within the preceding year. Of those abused, 2.1 percent experienced physical abuse only, 89.1 percent experienced verbal abuse only, and 8.8 percent experienced both. Exposure to abuse was associated with being younger than 58, non-white, a non-high school graduate, having an annual family income of less than $20,000, being divorced or separated, being a past or current smoker, and drinking more than one drink per week. Nearly 49,000 participants were again surveyed three years later regarding subsequent exposure to abuse. Follow-up data indicated a five percent increase in the rate of reported abuse. Rates of abuse among functionally independent women appear similar to those of younger women.

13. P5744-8
Roberto, K., Teaster, P. & Duke, J.
Older Women Who Experience Mistreatment: Circumstances and Outcomes
Journal of Women & Aging; Vol. 16 (1/2), 3-17; 2004.
Journal article (research)
From April 1, 2000, through June 30, 2000, a total of 95 substantiated elder abuse cases were opened throughout five of Virginia's adult protective services regions. Data was examined in order to develop a victim profile of elderly female abuse victims. The study also analyzed the circumstances in which the abuse occurred, and the outcomes of the cases. Victims were predominantly White, aged 61 to 98, and nearly half lived in their own homes. Most required assistance with ambulation and with financial management. Neglect was the most commonly reported mistreatment (44 percent), followed by financial exploitation (14 percent) and physical abuse (12 percent), and 18 percent experienced multiple types of abuses. Most women were victimized in their own homes, and mistreatment was typically reported by health care or social service professionals. The abuser was most commonly a family member (65 percent) although 15 percent were abused by long-term care staff members. Of the outcomes, only four perpetrators were prosecuted, 18 percent of the victims were relocated, and 80 percent received APS services (including counseling, case management, health care services, community based services, etc.). Seventy percent of the cases remained open for the three month study period, and 59 percent of the victims were still considered "at risk" for mistreatment.

14. P5768-9
Teaster, P. & Roberto, K.
Sexual Abuse of Older Adults: APS Cases and Outcomes
The Gerontologist; Vol. 44 (6), 788-796; 2004.
Journal article (research)        
This study is intended to develop a profile of elder sexual abuse cases being addressed by the Virginia Adult Protective Services Program. A total of 82 cases were substantiated within the state from July 1996 through June 2001, occurring in both domestic and institutional settings. Data analyzed included victim characteristics (such as age, orientation, self-care ability), perpetrator characteristics, type of sexual abuse, resolution of the case, and outcomes for the victim (such as treatment, relocation, and risk for future victimization). Researchers used a multivariate analysis to examine relationships between victim characteristics and types of victimization. Of the results, 95 percent of the victims were women, approximately half were aged 60 to 79, 72 percent resided in nursing homes or other institutional care facilities, and 17 percent lived with a family member. Nearly half of the cases involved multiple types of sexual abuse. Perpetrators, identified in 95 percent of the cases, were male in all but one instance, and typically aged 60 and over (88 percent). In 69 percent of the cases in residential facilities, the perpetrator was another resident; in 5 percent the perpetrator was a staff member. Approximately 28 percent were identified as having untreated psychiatric illness, 16 percent were substance abusers, and 14 percent were financially dependent upon the victim. Only four of the perpetrators were prosecuted (three were convicted), with insufficient evidence noted as the most common reason for not prosecuting. Relocation was the most common outcome for both victims (16 percent) and perpetrators (29 percent), with relatively few victims receiving physical or psychological treatment (11 percent) and even fewer of the perpetrators receiving psychiatric treatment (10 percent).

15. P5769-9
Yan, E. & Tang, C.
Elder Abuse by Caregivers: A Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors in Hong Kong Chinese Families
Journal of Family Violence; Vol.19 (5), 269-277; October 2004.
Journal article (research)
After providing a review of the international literature on prevalence/incidence studies of elder abuse, this article reports upon research designed to study prevalence rates and associated risk factors of elder abuse among Hong Kong Chinese individuals aged 60 and over. Participants were referred from five community centers for elders, with the final sample consisting of 90 males and 186 females, ranging in age from 60 to 91. Ninety-one percent of the participants were living with family members at the time of the study. Researchers administered oral questionnaires regarding their experiences of verbal and physical abuse and violation of personal rights occurring within the previous 12 months. Of the findings, 27.5 percent of the elders experienced some form of abuse. Verbal abuse was the most prevalent mistreatment experienced (by 26.8 percent of the participants); violation of personal rights was experienced by 5.1 percent; and physical abuse was experienced by 2.5 percent. Abusers were predominantly adult children (88 percent). Of those victimized, over one-fourth were victimized by multiple abusers. Strongest predictors of overall abuse and violation of personal rights were poor visual ability, dependence on caregivers, caregivers' nondependence on victims, and memory impairment. Physical abuse was also predicted by caregivers' nondependence on elders and elders dependence on caregivers. Advanced age was the only significant predictor of violation of personal rights.


16. P5464-12
Ockleford, E. et al.
Mistreatment of Older Women in Three European Countries - Estimated Prevalence and Service Responses
Violence Against Women; Vol. 9 (12), 1453-1464; December 2003.
Journal article (research)
The authors of this study sought to survey the experiences of mistreatment among older women from three European Union countries (Ireland, Italy and the United Kingdom) in comparison with prevalence studies conducted in the U.S. In addition, they interviewed staff who work with older women regarding their perceptions of elder abuse among their clientele, and the existence and accessibility of services for older battered women. The convenience sample of women, aged 60 and over, included 50 Irish, 50 Italian and 49 British participants. Participants completed a 34-item questionnaire addressing threats and experiences of physical abuse, psychological abuse and financial exploitation occurring since age 59. Fourteen percent of the sample were identified as having dementia but only one of these woman reported being abused (7 percent). An overall prevalence of 14 percent of the total sample experienced threats of mistreatment, and 18 percent demonstrated an overall prevalence of actual abuse, with financial abuse being the most common. Spouses and other family members were the most common perpetrators of physical abuse and others (outside the family and social network) were overwhelmingly the perpetrators of financial abuse (79 percent). While acknowledging serious limitations with regards to the type and size of the sample, the researchers indicate that this study identifies the need for further cross-cultural research and increased accessibility of services for older battered women.

17. P5484-12
Rennison, C. & Rand, M.
Nonlethal Intimate Partner Violence - A Comparison of Three Age Cohorts
Violence Against Women; Vol. 9 (12), 1417-1428; December 2003.
Journal article (research)
This article provides a comparison of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS, 1993-2001) regarding the prevalence and incidence estimates of nonlethal intimate partner violence (IPV) among three age cohorts: women aged 55 and over, those aged 25 to 54, and those aged 12 to 24. Females aged 12 to 24 had the highest rate of intimate partner victimization (12.3 per 1000), those aged 25 to 54 were victimized at a rate of 8.7 per 1000, and women aged 55 and older were victimized at a rate of .44 per 1000. Older women were most often victimized by a current spouse (62 percent), and nearly half of this group indicated that their perpetrator was under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Ninety-four percent of the IPV against older women occurred in their homes, and only 52 percent of the nonlethal IPV perpetrated against older women was reported to the police. Researchers discuss possible reasons for under-reporting among older women.

18. P5539-8
Teaster, P. & Roberto, K.
Sexual Abuse of Older Women Living in Nursing Homes
Journal of Gerontological Social Work; Vol. 40 (4), 105-119; 2003.
Journal article (research)
Elder sexual abuse is the least recognized and reported form of elder mistreatment. This article presents data on the sexual abuse of older female nursing home residents reported to the Virginia Adult Protective Services Program from July 1, 1996 through June 30, 2001. Fifty cases of sexual abuse of female residents were substantiated during this time period. Half of those abused were aged 70 to 79 and the other half were 80 to 89. Among the victim characteristics, most had difficulty in orientation, were unable to ambulate without assistance, and were unable to manage their financial affairs without assistance. The abuse most commonly involved sexualized kissing and fondling, and unwelcome sexual interest in the victim's body. Other forms of sexual abuse that occurred with less frequency included unwanted descriptions of sexual activity, sexualized jokes, oral-genital contact, vaginal rape and digital penetration. In 90 percent of the cases, the alleged perpetrator was a male resident of the same facility, typically 70 years of age or older. Twenty-eight percent had untreated psychiatric illness and 12 percent abused substances. No staff members were identified as perpetrators.


19. N4830-7
Brandl, B. & Cook-Daniels, L.
Domestic Abuse in Later Life - Elder Abuse Research Charts - Prevalence and Incidence
Research chart
This is one of a series of papers that compiles pertinent research on domestic violence in later life. The paper contains a listing of significant studies on the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect. It includes a summary chart of major studies and a bibliography of the resource materials. (Note: The research chart may be accessed at the National Center on Elder Abuse web site at .)

20. P5852-9
Vida, S., Monks, R., & Des Rosiers, P.
Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse and Neglect in a Geriatric Psychiatry Service
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry; Vol. 47 (5), 459-467; June 2002.
Journal article (research)
This study was designed to analyze the prevalence and correlates of four types of elder mistreatment in a population of gero-psychiatric patients. Researchers conducted a cross-sectional retrospective chart review of new in- and out-patients seen at the Montreal General Hospital Division of Geriatric Psychiatry during 1990. One-hundred and twenty-six medical records were reviewed. Abuse or neglect was suspected or confirmed in 16 percent of the patients. The most common form of mistreatment was financial abuse, occurring in 13 percent of the patients, followed by neglect (seven percent), emotional abuse (four percent), and physical abuse (two percent). Six percent of the sample experienced multiple forms of abuse.


21. P5857-5
Hajjar, I. & Duthie, E.
Prevalence of Elder Abuse in the United States: A Comparative Report Between the National and Wisconsin Data
Wisconsin Medical Journal; Vol. 100 (6), 22-26; 2001.
Journal article (research)
This study compares prevalence of elder abuse within the state of Wisconsin to national estimates. The data was drawn from the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (NEAIS, 1998) and the Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services (from 1989 through 1998). The NEAIS included community-based information from sentinels as well as data provided by selected adult protective services (APS), but the sampling did not include any counties from Wisconsin. Based upon substantiated cases of elder abuse reported to APS in 1996, the NEAIS indicates a prevalence rate of 2.7 cases of elder abuse per thousand. The prevalence of elder abuse in Wisconsin based upon substantiated cases was 1.6 per thousand during the same year. The study also compares the prevalence rates when factoring in the sentinel reports also used in the NEAIS, and assuming a similar pattern in Wisconsin. Both the NEAIS and state reports suggest that self-neglect was the most commonly reported type of elder abuse, and the very old (aged 80 and older) constituted the greatest proportion of victimization nationally and throughout the state. Researchers identified geographic differences in prevalence rates as well as in rates of change in numbers of reports made throughout the state. A lack of standardization of reporting programs, along with a lack of sentinel reporting within Wisconsin, are two of the limitations of the study.

22. P5076-4
Pavlik, V., Hyman, D., Festa, N. & Dyer, C.
Quantifying the Problem of Abuse and Neglect in Adults - Analysis of a Statewide Database
Journal of the American Geriatric Society/ JAGS; Vol. 49 (1), 45-48; 2001.
Journal article (research)
The Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services - Adult Protective Services Division (TDPRS-APS) has a centralized data base for reports of abuse and neglect of vulnerable adults and therefore contains a wealth of data for analysis of trends in elder abuse. This research analyzes the data from over 62,000 allegations made in 1997. Eighty percent of the allegations were of neglect. The prevalence rate for being reported as a victim of abuse or neglect (for individuals 65 and older) to APS during this year was 1,310 per 100,000. While women were at higher risk for abuse than men, there was only a slight increased risk for self-neglect.

23. L4523-9
Yan, E. & Tang, C.
Prevalence and Psychological Impact of Chinese Elder Abuse
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; Vol. 16 (11), 1158-1174; November 2001.
Journal article (research)
In this study, 355 Hong Kong seniors (aged 65 and over) from five community centers were assessed to explore the prevalence rate, interdependence issues and psychological impact of elder abuse. Researchers used the Chinese version of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) to assess incidence of physical and verbal abuse and devised a subscale to measure social abuse (forced isolation, inappropriate placements, etc.). The results indicate that 21 percent of these participants had experienced at least one instance of abuse (predominantly verbal abuse) within the past year, a rate higher than previously estimated in Hong Kong. Researchers identify a number of limitations of the study and suspect that the Chinese tradition of preserving the privacy of the family may contribute to an underestimation of elder abuse.


24. P5858-14
Thomas, C.
The First National Study of Elder Abuse and Neglect: Contrast with Results from Other Studies
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 (1), 1-14; 2000.
Journal article (research)
The purpose of the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (NEAIS) was to obtain national estimates of elder abuse cases in the U.S. The study was designed to measure the scope of the problem including not only data based upon cases reported to adult protective services (APS), but also including nonreported cases of elder abuse and neglect, which is thought to be a greater problem. This article examines the key elements of this study, and compares the methods and results of the NEAIS with two previously conducted studies, the prevalence studies conducted by Pillemer and Finkelhor (Boston, 1988), and by Comijs et al., (the Netherlands, 1998). Standardization of definitions, sampling methods, the selection of agencies from which 1,000 sentinels were chosen, the matching of cases reported to APS with those identified by sentinels but unreported to APS, and the preparation and training used in data collection are among the study designs considered. The NEAIS estimated that 286,443 reports were received by all APS agencies in 1996, while the actual number of reports made to APS in 1996 was 290,314, representing a difference of only 1.3 percent. In addition, the NEAIS estimates that there were nearly twice as many unreported incidents of abuse occurring in 1996, indicating that 550,000 community-dwelling individuals, aged 60 and over, experienced some form of elder mistreatment. The NEAIS estimate of 1.2 percent of elders experiencing elder abuse or neglect is lower than that of both the Boston study (3.2 percent) and the Netherlands study (5.6 percent). Differences in age groups of subjects, definitions of abuse, modes of data collection, types of measurement (prevalence versus incidence), and variance in severity of abuse, are among the factors considered.


25. K4215-7
Fulmer, T., Ramirez, M., Fairchild, S., Holmes, D., Koren, M., Teresi, J.
Prevalence of Elder Mistreatment as Reported by Social Workers in a Probability Sample of Adult Day Health Care Clients
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 11 (3), 25-36; 1999.
Journal article (research)
Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) programs are growing in number and provide needed health services to community-dwelling elderly. This gives ADHC staff a unique opportunity to identify and intervene in suspected elder mistreatment (EM) cases. Signs and symptoms of abuse were categorized as either physical (unexplained bruises or welts, lacerations or abrasions, human bite marks, and frequent injuries) or behavioral indicators (apprehension, being frightened, afraid to go home) and social workers were interviewed to assess the prevalence of EM among 360 clients. The prevalence rate for EM, when considering all indicators, was 12.3 percent; when excluding "apprehensive," it was 3.6 percent. Ongoing monitoring of client behaviors and thorough, regular, physical examinations by clinical staff are recommended.

26. K4205-13
Hudson, M. et al.
Elder Abuse: Some African American Views
Journal of Interpersonal Violence; Vol. 14 (9), 915-939; 1999.
Journal article (research)
The purpose of this study was to assess what the term "elder abuse" meant to a sample of culturally diverse adults from seven counties in South Carolina. Groups were administered the Elder Abuse Vignette Scale (EAVS) and the Elements of Elder Abuse Scale (EEAS). Responses from African American (n=318), White American (n=424), and Native American (n=202) groups were compared with one another and with the views of a panel of elder mistreatment experts. Of those responding, 7.7 percent of the White Americans, 4.3 percent of the Native Americans, and 9.5 percent of the African Americans reported being abused since age 65. Participants were also asked about lifelong experiences of abuse, and about being perpetrators of elder abuse.

27. N4678-12
Hudson, M. & Carlson, J.
Elder Abuse: Its Meaning to Caucasians, African Americans, and Native Americans
Chapter 12 of Understanding Elder Abuse in Minority Populations, edited by Tatara, T.; Taylor & Francis; Philadelphia, PA; 1999.
Book chapter (research)
This chapter reports on one aspect of a study designed to assess varying perceptions of elder abuse. The research is built upon an earlier Delphi study by the authors using an expert panel's taxonomy and definition of elder abuse. The sample consisted of approximately 950 North Carolina residents of both genders, aged 40 and older, representing three racial groups (Caucasians, African Americans and Native Americans). Participants were formally interviewed using the Elder Abuse Vignette Scale (EAVS) and the Elements of Elder Abuse Scale (EEAS). The third part of the interview allowed participants to discuss individual characteristics and their aging and abuse experiences (excluding neglect). Seven and a half percent of the 452 who responded reported that they had been abused since turning age 65. Cultural differences are outlined. (Note: This book is not available through CANE; please contact the publisher for further information.)

28. N4890-7
Mouton, C., Rovi, S. Furniss, K. & Lasser, N.
The Associations Between Health and Domestic Violence in Older Women: Results of a Pilot Study
Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine; Vol. 8 (9), 1173-1179; 1999.
Journal article (research)
In this research, a sample of 257 women, aged 50-79, participated in the Women's Health Initiative in Newark, New Jersey (1995-1996). Among the findings, 31.9 percent of the participants had experienced either domestic physical assault or threats throughout their lives; 15 percent had been physically assaulted; and of those experiencing assaults/threats, 4.3 percent were currently involved in abusive situations. When compared with women who had not been threatened or abused, women who had been threatened, assaulted or both had lower mental component scores (MCS) indicating poorer mental health.


29. A113-4
Comijs, H., Pot, A., Smit, J., et al.
Elder Abuse in the Community: Prevalence and Consequences
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society/JAGS; Vol. 46 (7), 885-888; 1998.
Journal article (research)
The purpose of this article is to assess the prevalence and consequences of chronic verbal aggression, physical aggression, financial mistreatment, and neglect in a community-based sample, and to investigate the circumstances that led to abuse. Data was drawn from a sample of 1,797 older individuals living independently in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The one-year prevalence rate of abuse was 5.6 percent, with verbal aggression the most common type experienced at a 3.2 percent rate. The report also examines how the victims dealt with the abuse.


30. N4559-6
Cupitt, M.
Identifying and Addressing the Issues in Elder Abuse: A Rural Perspective
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 8 (4), 21-30; 1997.
Journal article (research)
This article reports the findings of a study of domestic elder abuse in rural communities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. During May of 1995, twenty community nurses and home care workers visited a total of 598 clients and assessed them for victimization of physical, financial, psychological/emotional abuse, neglect and self-neglect (defined by the official report of the NSW Task Force on Abuse of Older People, 1/93). A total of 33 (5.5 percent) elders were identified as experiencing some form of abuse. Of those abused, nearly half (15) experienced psychological abuse, one-third (12) experienced financial abuse, nine experienced physical abuse, nine were neglected, three were self-neglecting, and one experienced a violation of rights. The findings for this non-metropolitan population are similar to findings of prevalence and type of abuse in metropolitan areas; however, lack of services and geographic isolation present barriers to prevention and treatment to those in rural communities. Respite care was considered the most needed but unavailable resource.

31. K4291-4
Kurrle, S., Sadler, P., Lockwood, K. & Cameron, I.
Elder Abuse: Prevalence, Intervention, and Outcomes in Patients Referred to Four Aged Care Assessment Teams
Medical Journal of Australia/MJA; Vol. 166 (3), 119-122; February 1997.
Journal article (research)
This study expanded upon prior research on the prevalence and patterns of elder abuse among patients of four Aged Care Assessment Teams (ACAT) in Perth, Brisbane, Sydney, and New South Wales, Australia during 1994. A total of 5,246 community-dwelling patients, aged 65 and over, were referred to the four ACATs during that time frame. Sixty-three victims of elder abuse were identified, representing an overall prevalence rate of 1.2 percent, with psychological abuse being the most common form of mistreatment. Findings indicate that factors causing elder abuse were consistent with those observed in previous Australian studies, however, the prevalence rate was lower than formerly reported.

32. L4406-7
Lachs, M. et al.
ED Use by Older Victims of Family Violence
Annals of Emergency Medicine; Vol. 30 (4), 448-454; 1997.
Journal article (research)
The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and frequency of emergency department (ED) use by victims of elder abuse. From 1985 through 1992, 182 victims of physical abuse were identified through the State Elderly Protective Service Program office serving the area of New Haven, Connecticut, that was also served by two medical emergency departments (ED). An analysis of emergency records revealed that over 62 percent of the victims were seen at least once in the ED, with those visits often resulting in admission.

33. N4564-9
Sharon, N. & Zoabi, S.
Elder Abuse in a Land of Tradition: The Case of Israel's Arabs
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 8 (4), 43-58; 1997.
Journal article (research)
The Arab community comprises 18 percent of the Israeli population. This study explores the nature of elder abuse within this traditional group, currently undergoing cultural changes. One-hundred twenty-eight health and human services professionals were asked to report on identified incidents of elder abuse occurring over an eighteen month period of time. Findings were based on 434 cases of physical, psychological, material abuse and neglect (excluding self-neglect), and demonstrated an incidence rate of 2.53 percent for Arab elders, in the lower range established by prior international incidence studies. In urban areas, higher incidence rates were reported. While characteristics of abuse victims appear generally similar to Western profiles, a notable difference in the abuser profile is that sons, rather than spouses, were found to be the most common perpetrators.


34. J4081-17
Harris, S.
For Better or for Worse: Spouse Abuse Grown Old
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 8 (1), 1-33; 1996.
Journal article (research)
Spouse abuse is one of the more common forms of elder abuse but little is known about its causes and consequences. This study draws upon a sample of 5,168 couples from the 1985 U.S. Family Violence Resurvey, divided into two groups, those aged 19 to 59, and those 60 and older. While 5.8 percent of the older respondents reported currently experiencing intimate partner violence as compared to 18.2 percent of the younger respondents, they share many of the same risk factors.


35. P5438-8
Wolf, R.
A Brief Look at: The Prevalence of Elder Abuse (from the Research Digest series)
NCEA Exchange; Vol. 1 (2), 6-8; July 1994.
Newsletter article (literature review)
In this article, part of the NCEA Exchange Research Digest series, the author synthesizes the information available on the prevalence of elder abuse throughout the world. The Boston survey, conducted by Pillemer and Finkelhor (1988), the Canadian survey (Podnieks et al.,1988), the Finland study (Kivela et al., 1992), and the Omnibus survey in Britain (Ogg, 1993) are briefly described. Prevalence estimates range from 3.5 to 5.4 percent.


36. N4873-9
Pittaway, E. & Westhues, A.
The Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults Who Access Health and Social Services in London, Ontario, Canada
Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect; Vol. 5 (4) 77-93; 1993.
Journal article (research)
In this prevalence study, 385 residents (aged 55-100) of London, Ontario were interviewed regarding their personal experience of physical, verbal, material abuse and neglect. Over 14 percent of the respondents indicated that they had experienced at least one episode of physical abuse after turning 55. One factor that may account for higher prevalence than previously established (Podnieks, 1990) is that this sample was drawn from individuals who had accessed health and social services.

        37. P5853-6
Saveman, B., Hallberg, I., Norberg, A. & Eriksson, S.
Patterns of Abuse of the Elderly in Their Own Homes as Reported by District Nurses
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care; Vol. 11 (2), 111-116; 1993.
Journal article (research)
In this study, 150 of 163 district nurses in a southern county of Sweden were asked about patterns of abuse observed among their in-home elderly patients during a six-month period. Among the results, 18 nurses identified 30 cases of elder abuse. In 53.3 percent of the cases, abuse lasted over a year, and in 23.3 percent it lasted between 6 months and one year. Of the victim characteristics observed, the mean age was 78.7 years, 60 percent were female, 53.3 percent were married, and 46.6 percent demonstrated no memory or cognitive impairments. Over half experienced urinary incontinence, nearly three-quarters were house bound, and nearly one-third had difficulty getting out of bed. Abuser characteristics were also analyzed. The mean age was 64.2 years, 43.3 percent were spouses of the victim, 43.3 percent were sons or daughters, and 13 percent were in-laws or siblings. Only 13 percent worked outside the home. Psychological abuse was the most commonly reported, followed by isolation, physical abuse, neglect and material abuse.


38. H3332-10
Kivela, S. et al.
Abuse in Old Age - Epidemiological Data From Finland
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 4 (3), 1-18; 1992.
Journal article (research)
The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence, places of occurrence, and types of abuse among Finns aged 65 years and over. One-thousand and twenty-two individuals were interviewed about their experiences of physical, psychological, and elder sexual abuse, financial exploitation and neglect. Three percent of the men and nine percent of the women indicated that they had been abused after the age of retirement. Psychological abuse was most common (occurring at a rate of 46 percent for men, 49 percent for women) followed by physical abuse (at a rate of 15 percent for men,18 percent for women). The characteristics of victims and abuse circumstances are described.

39. H3321-1
Ogg, J.
Elder Abuse In Britain
British Medical Journal; Vol. 305, (24), 998-999; 1992.
Journal article (research)
The purpose of this survey was to identify the prevalence of abuse of elderly people at home by family members or close relatives. Between 500 and 600 interviews were conducted with adults aged 60 and older. Thirty-three elders reported experiencing verbal abuse, ten reported experiencing physical abuse, and nine reported experiencing financial abuse. The results suggest that rates of abuse in elderly people known to social and health care practitioners are higher than the rate in the general population. However, several methodological problems were encountered.

40. A13-28
Podnieks, E.
National Survey on Abuse of the Elderly in Canada
Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect; Vol. 4 (1/2), 5-58; 1992.
Journal article (research)
This study, utilizing data collected through a modified random sample telephone survey of 2008 community-dwelling elders, sought to identify the prevalence and circumstances of four major categories of mistreatment (material abuse, psychological abuse, physical abuse and neglect) in Canada. Among the findings, a rate of 40 elders per 1,000 had recently experienced abuse or neglect by a partner, relative or significant other. Material or financial abuse was the most common (with a prevalence rate of 2.5 percent), followed by chronic verbal aggression (at a rate of 1.4 percent), physical violence (at 0.5 percent), and neglect (at 0.4 percent).

41. H3336-51
Simon, M., for the American Association of Retired Persons
An Exploratory Study of Adult Protective Services Programs' Repeat Elder Abuse Clients
American Association of Retired Persons; Washington, D.C.; October, 1992.
Agency report
The purpose of this study was to better understand the nature and extent of repeat cases of elder abuse among adult protective services (APS) programs. County programs from five states were chosen for data analysis: Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Texas and Wisconsin. Percentages and conditions of reoccurrence, as well as the effectiveness of APS programs on repeat cases of elder abuse were examined. Fifteen to 23 percent of the individuals reported to the various APS programs had previously been involved in APS investigations. (Note: To obtain this report, visit the AARP web site at: .)


42. G3232-11
Brown, A.
A Survey on Elder Abuse At One Native American Tribe
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 1 (2), 17-37; 1989.
Journal article (research)
This study validates the existence of various types of abuse among the Navajo elderly. Of the 37 reservation-dwelling elderly participants, nearly one-third had experienced neglect, eight experienced financial exploitation, eight had been psychologically abused, and six had been physically abused.


43. C2155-7
Pillemer, K. & Finkelhor, D.
The Prevalence of Elder Abuse: A Random Sample Survey
The Gerontologist; Vol 28, (1), 51-57; 1988.
Journal article (research)
This paper reports on the first large-scale random sample survey of elder abuse and neglect. Interviews were conducted with 2,020 community-dwelling elderly persons in the Boston metropolitan area regarding their experience of physical violence, verbal aggression, and neglect. Results indicate the prevalence rate of overall maltreatment was 32 elderly persons per 1,000. Spouses were found to be the most likely abusers and roughly equal numbers of men and women were victims; women suffered more serious abuses. This paper identifies specific sub-groups of the elderly population who appear to be at greatest risk of maltreatment and discusses implications for public policy.



44. P5870-4
Callahan, J.
Elder Abuse Revisited
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 (1), 33-36; 2000.
Journal article (commentary)
The author suggests in this commentary that the findings of the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (NEAIS) support his earlier contention that elder abuse problems should be addressed within the domain of the social service system, rather than by specialized abuse programs. He also suggests that the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) "...begin to track expenditures so that we will know how well we are doing relative to the size of the problem." (Note: This article is part of a series of commentaries appearing in the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 No. 1; 2000.)

45. P5867-16
Comijs, H., Dijkastra, W., Bouter, L. & Smit, J.
The Quality of Data Collection by an Interview on the Prevalence of Elder Mistreatment
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 (1), 57-72; 2000.
Journal article (research/commentary)
In this study, researchers investigate the quality of interviewing utilized in a prevalence study conducted in the Netherlands (see CANE file # A113-4, Comijs et al., 1998). Transcripts of 143 audio-taped, face-to-face interviews with elders reporting mistreatment were analyzed and coded to determine whether all interview questions were asked and answered adequately. Despite extensive training on (and intensive supervision of) the interview process, and significant field experience on the part of the interviewers, six out of 31 skipped over 10 percent of the questions, and two of the 31 interviews contained over 10 percent unusable answers. Results suggest that a total of 8.6 percent of the scores were inadequately obtained. Researchers also analyzed whether the skipped questions and unusable answers were related to the characteristics of the question, the interviewer, the length of the reference period (how long since the participant had turned 65), or the cognitive functioning of the participant. Skipped questions appear strongly associated with the characteristics of the questions. Inadequately obtained scores did not appear associated with the length of the reference period or the cognitive functioning of the respondent. The authors recommend that training regarding the interviewing process should address the difficulty of probing elders regarding emotionally charged material, and also suggest that training continue during the interviewing phase of such studies in order to address unanticipated difficulties.

46. P5869-3
Fulmer, T.
The First National Study on Elder Abuse and Neglect: Contrast with Results from Other Studies
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 (1), 15-17; 2000.
Journal article (commentary)
In this commentary, the author summarizes how the findings of the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (NEAIS) support or conflict with results from previous studies. For example, results of the NEAIS support earlier findings that physical and mental dependencies on the part of the victim are risk factors for mistreatment, including self-neglect. However, the finding that 47 percent of the perpetrators were adult children of the victims, compared to 19 percent who were spouses, contradicts previous findings that suggest elder abuse is domestic violence "grown old." The author proposes several clinical recommendations based upon such results. (Note: This article is part of a series of commentaries on the NEAIS appearing in the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 No. 1; 2000.)

47. P5871-9
Mixson, P.
Counterparts Across Time: Comparing the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study and the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 (1); 19-27; 2000.
Journal article (commentary)
In this commentary, the author compares specific aspects of the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (NEAIS, conducted in 1996) and the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-1, conducted in 1979-1980). Both study designs were based upon the "iceberg theory," which assumes that cases reported to protective services represent only the "tip of the iceberg" of the problem. Both studies utilized the sentinel approach to detect unreported abuse and neglect. One major difference is that the NIS-1 noted that the reporting of inappropriate cases in addition to under-reporting presents significant challenges, while the NEAIS noted the need for public awareness, education, and mobilization, along with a standardization of definitions and reporting procedures. Another significant difference is that the NIS-1 tracked child abuse fatalities, while the NEAIS did not track severity of elder abuse cases or elder abuse fatalities. (Note: This article is part of a series of commentaries on the NEAIS appearing in the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 No. 1, 2000.)

48. P5868-4
Phillipson, C.
National Elder Abuse Incidence Study
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 (1), 29-32; 2000.
Journal article (commentary)
This commentary highlights some of the findings of the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (NEAIS) regarding neglect and self-neglect. Nearly half of the 71,000 substantiated adult protective services (APS) reports were attributed to neglect, and over 44,000 additional cases involved self-neglect. Societal challenges related to dealing with poverty, confusion and self-care deficits, characteristics associated with neglect and self-neglect, are raised. (Note: This article is part of a series of commentaries on the NEAIS appearing in the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect; Vol. 12 No. 1; 2000.)


49. N4897-4
Cook-Daniels, L.
Interpreting the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study
Victimization of the Elderly and Disabled; Vol. 2 (1), pages 1, 2, 14 & 15; May/June 1999.
Newsletter article
In this article, the author identifies perceived strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (NEAIS), released in 1998. Among the weaknesses, the "sentinel" data collection method is criticized due to its inability to reach the isolated elderly, when social isolation in itself is a risk factor of elder abuse. Additionally, the findings of the Sentinels are not comparable with Adult Protective Services (APS) data. However, contributions of this research are also highlighted as it confirms that APS reports only show "the tip of the iceberg" in terms of the scope of the problem. Victim, perpetrator and reporter profiles were also generated from this research.

Note: For information on abuse and neglect complaints made on behalf of nursing home and board and care residents, access the National Ombudsman Reporting System Data Tables at the Administration on Aging web site at:

National Center on Elder Abuse
1201 15th Street, N.W., Suite 350 · Washington, DC 20005-2842
(202) 898-2586 · Fax: (202) 898-2583 · Email: [email protected]