April 2006 | Volume 8 | No. 5

Policy & Legislation

Elder Justice Watch

Support for Elder Justice Act passage is growing slowly, but steadily. On March 16, Rep. Peter King (R-NY), chairperson of the House Committee on Homeland Security, introduced the House version of the 2006 Elder Justice Act (H.R. 4993). The Senate's companion measure (S. 2010) was introduced late last year by Sen. Orrin G. Hatch (R-UT).

"We must do more," Rep. King said in his public announcement of the bill, adding, "Older Americans should be free of abuse and exploitation, and should not have to wait any longer for the protection they deserve."

Just as importantly, "This bill will bring focus to the problem of elder abuse and elevate it to the same level as other family violence issues," noted Rep. Rahm Emanuel (D-IL), a primary cosponsor of the new House bill. Rep. Emanuel is a member of the House Ways and Means Committee, which has jurisdiction over matters including Social Security.

As of press time, there were 21 House cosponsors of the Elder Justice Act and 11 in the Senate.

To read the full text of the House and Senate bills or to check their status, go to:

For those wishing to learn more, contact Robert Blancato, National Coordinator, Elder Justice Coalition, (202) 789-0470, [email protected], www.elderjusticecoalition.com

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WHCoA Report to President and Congress Nearly Ready

The WHCoA Policy Committee is now circulating a preliminary report of the 2005 White House Conference on Aging to the Governors for review and comment. By statute, the report to the President and the Congress is to be released no later than June. April 15 is the deadline for the Governors to comment.

"Elder Justice" ranked 15th out of the top 50 WHCoA resolutions voted by the delegates. The number one priority was reauthorization of the Older Americans Act (OAA). The OAA Title VII, the Vulnerable Elder Rights Protection program, is a key source of funding for state and local elder abuse prevention efforts.

WHCoAs have helped to define and shape America's aging policy agenda for many decades. The 2005 recommendations will no doubt continue this tradition. Click the links below for more information:

State News

California Settles Enforcement Action Charging Nursing Home Chain

On March 8, California Attorney General Bill Lockyer announced that a civil lawsuit brought by the Attorney General's Bureau of Medi-Cal Fraud and Elder Abuse against the state's second largest provider of nursing home care has been settled.

According the Attorney General, the lawsuit filed in Los Angeles County Superior Court stemmed from numerous allegations of elder abuse and criminally negligent care in the nursing home chain's facilities. In addition to the $1 million in fines imposed on the corporation, the court ordered the following remedies:

  • Mandatory staff training in each facility.
  • Prompt reporting and investigation of any alleged act of abuse or neglect towards a resident. Any member of the staff reasonably suspected of committing abuse must be placed on administrative leave during the course of the investigation.
  • Nurse-to-patient staffing ratio of 3.2 hours (per-patient-per-day)
  • Whistleblower protections.

For more details of the case, see >> http://ag.ca.gov/newsalerts/release.php?id=1268

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South Carolina Legislation Would Create Special Investigations Unit

On March 14, a bill to establish a special investigations unit in the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division to investigate abuse, neglect, and exploitation of vulnerable adults and vulnerable adult fatalities state facilities funded by the Department of Mental Health or Department of Disabilities and Special Needs was approved by the Senate Committee on Judiciary and sent to the House. The bill also calls for the establishment of a vulnerable adult fatalities review committee.

S. 1116 >> http://tinyurl.com/kdwcf

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Missouri House Passes Financial Exploitation Bill

On March 16, the Missouri House of Representatives passed legislation expanding protection for the elderly against financial exploitation. Sponsored by Rep. Nathan D. Cooper (R-158), H.B. 1212 codifies a presumption of "undue influence" in any transfer of real property or major transfer of personal property for less than full consideration to another person with whom the elderly or disabled person has a confidential or fiduciary relationship.

Under this bill, courts may set aside any transfer where a finding of undue influence has been proved by the elderly individual.

H.B 1212 > http://www.house.mo.gov/bills061/biltxt/intro/HB1212I.htm

Promising Practices Spotlight: Combating Financial Exploitation

Michigan Senior Exploitation and Abuse Quick Response Team

It was just a decade ago when the Senior Exploitation and Abuse Quick Response Team (SEAQRT) of Michigan held its first meeting on June 7, 1996 to tackle the very serious and growing problem of elder financial exploitation – crimes perpetrated by service providers, salespeople, family members, 'new-found friends,' acquaintances, and scam artists.

According to state data, the average monthly number of cases opened by Adult Protective Services more than doubled in Michigan from 1992 through 2002—adults over age 65 represent 60 percent of all substantiated cases of harm; the single most vulnerable age group is individuals over age 75.

Originally dubbed the Senior 'Exploitation' Quick Response Team, the group was created by the Michigan Office of Services to the Aging (OSA) and the Michigan Family Independence Agency (now known as the Department of Human Services) to get a handle on the problem.

There were very few answers when the group formed in the mid 1990s, said Bradley Vauter, a lawyer with Elder Law of Michigan, Inc. and a former facilitator for the team. So many questions were "floating in from all over" that a senior OSA staffer (now retired) thought it a good idea to get colleagues in the field together to share experiences and solutions, he said.

Today, the team is an ad hoc group composed of representatives of a variety of agencies and organizations at the state, local, and federal levels, many with regulatory authority over industries such as banking, insurance, funeral homes, and real estate. Team members include staffers from OSA, Michigan Adult Protective Services, Office of the Attorney General, Michigan State Police, Office of Financial and Insurance Services, Prosecuting Attorneys Coordinating Council, Department of Community Health, Michigan University Extension, Social Security Administration, Sixty-Plus Law Clinic, Elder Law of Michigan, and the U.S. Postal Service. The team also includes representation from Michigan Triads, AARP, and the Medicare/Medicaid Assistance program.

Over the past several years SEAQRT has made its expertise available for case review, recommended strategies, helped identify resources, and conducted case follow-up. Vauter stressed that joint problem solving at the middle management level is the major focus.

"The real benefit is it's a vehicle for people to talk about problems that might be outside their own jurisdictions," he said.

The working group is now in its tenth year, and attendance at the monthly meetings is excellent, even with limited resources, Vauter says. Among other accomplishments, the group has been instrumental in developing cross training for human services workers, law enforcement agencies, prosecuting attorneys, and the general public. Topics run the gamut from recognizing the warning signs of exploitation and abuse, understanding reporting procedures, and identifying resources available to help victims, and, in some instances, perpetrators.

The Blind Men and the Elephant

Six blind men traveled to the prince's palace to find out what an elephant was. In the courtyard, there stood an elephant. The first man put out his hand and touched the side of the elephant. "An elephant is like a wall," he said. The second man touched the elephant's tusk. It felt smooth and hard and sharp. He said, "No! An elephant is like a spear." The third touched the elephant's trunk. He said, "How round! An elephant is like a snake." The fourth touched the animal's leg. "Not so! It is like a tree," he said. The fifth touched the elephant's flapping ear. He said, "A tree? An elephant is like a fan." The sixth touched the animal's tail. "You're wrong," he said. "The elephant is like a rope."
The six blind men argued. "Stop," called out the prince. "Each of you is right but you are all wrong. You must put all the parts together to find out the truth."
—Indian folk tale

What's the promise in the practice? Vauter put it this way:

"Like the blind men and the elephant, people don't always see things the same way. You get a more compete picture of how systemic or nonsystemic the problem is when you get different points of view."

This is the opportunity to rethink the way the work gets done, he added. "It doesn't always take legislative changes."

For more information, contact Bradley Vauter JD, Community Liaison, Elder Law of Michigan, Inc, Legal Hotline for Michigan Seniors, 3815 W. St. Joseph, Ste. C-200, Lansing, MI 48917, (517) 485-9164, ext 228, [email protected]


September 2005 testimony of Bradley Vauter before the Michigan Elder Abuse Task Force www.ihcs.msu.edu/elder/Presentations/Vauter_Presentation915.pdf

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For more ideas and tools, search the NCEA Promising Practices Database >> www.elderabusecenter.org/default.cfm?p=toolsresources.cfm

NCEA News & Resources

New NCEA Webcasts Coming in April! Register Now

Wednesday, April 12, 2006 2 P.M. Eastern time
"2006 World Elder Abuse Awareness Day: Promoting Local, National, and Global Action"

World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, June 15, 2006June 15th has been declared "World Elder Abuse Awareness Day" to promote universal recognition and broad awareness of elder abuse as a social, public health, and human rights issue. America's policy makers, national advocates, providers, private and nonprofit organizations, state and local coalitions, the media, and the public can play an important role in support of this effort.

Join us for a special webcast to learn more. Among the topics to be covered:

  • Why World Elder Abuse Awareness Day is so important
  • Communication channels and opportunities for raising awareness
  • Community Guide to Raise World Awareness on Adult Abuse, a helpful tool kit produced by the International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse
  • Tips & techniques for spreading the word, leveraging technology as an outreach tool, and attracting media attention


  • Randolph W. Thomas, is the current president of the National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (NCPEA), a partner of the National Center on Elder Abuse. Mr. Thomas was section coordinator for Domestic Investigations and Behavioral Science Units with the South Carolina Criminal Justice Academy until his recent retirement. He has over 26 years experience in the law enforcement field and is a nationally known trainer on elder abuse investigation.
  • Susan Aziz, is Assistant Editor of Global Ageing, the journal of the International Federation on Ageing. Ms. Aziz has over 20 years experience in the elder abuse field both as an advocate and educator. She previously managed Los Angeles County elder rights programs and was instrumental in developing the county's award-winning Financial Abuse Specialist Team (FAST). She writes and speaks nationally and internationally on elder abuse prevention.
  • James Vanden Bosch, is founder and executive director of Terra Nova Films, Chicago, Illinois. Mr. Bosch is a nationally recognized authority on aging-related media communications. An award-winning filmmaker, his credits include My Mother, My Father, and I'd Rather Be Home: The Seven Year Abuse Case of Norman.

Register Online

Not Able to Participate?
A taped replay will be available within 24 hours on the Web conferencing site at

Sara Aravanis, Director
National Center on Elder Abuse
[email protected]

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Thursday, April 27, 2006 2 P.M. Eastern time
"Reaching Out: Strategies for Reaching Isolated and Underserved Victims of Elder Abuse"

NCEA recently provided seed funding to support new community outreach initiatives aimed at reaching underserved and isolated victims of elder abuse and those at risk. During this webcast you will learn more about the demonstrations, their successes, their strategies, and their partnerships. Project leaders will share lessons learned and offer suggestions for replication.


Register Online

Not Able to Participate?
A taped replay will be available within 24 hours on the Web conferencing site at

Suzanne Stack, Program Associate, Elder Rights
National Association of State Units on Aging
[email protected]

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Sign up today for the National Center on Elder Abuse Listserve

NCEA Elder Abuse listserve provides a free, 24-hour, 7-day-a-week online link to others who are working on elder abuse issues. The NCEA listserve is a discussion forum for professionals working in elder abuse or allied fields. Membership is restricted to adult protective services practitioners and administrators, aging services practitioners and administrators, educators, health professionals, judges, lawyers, law enforcement officers, prosecutors, policy makers, and researchers.

To request a subscription to the Elder Abuse listserve, just fill out the form at www.elderabusecenter.org/default.cfm?p=listservesubscribeform.cfm, or If you prefer, you can e-mail the list manager at [email protected]. All requests must include the information below:

  • Your name, profession, and e-mail address
  • A statement of your interest or expertise in elder abuse or adult protective services
  • Employer's name (if applicable) and address
  • Phone number (so that you can be contacted in the event of an e-mail problem)

See our Web site for more details.

On the Front Lines

Vermont Facts & Stats

  • Between 2000 and 2003, reports of abuse, neglect, and exploitation in Vermont increased by 59 percent.
  • Vermont Adult Protective Services received over 1,500 reports of abuse, neglect, and exploitation during fiscal 2001. Seven hundred reports were investigated.

Sources: Partners in Making A Difference (PowerPoint): Working Towards Ending Abuse of the Elderly, People with Disabilities and Deaf Individuals www.ccvs.state.vt.us/clearinghouse/res_list.php
Vermont Department of Aging and Disabilities 2002 Annual Report www.dad.state.vt.us/Reports/DADAnnualReport2002.pdf

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Vermont Online Resources




Research & Scholarship

"Could Self-Neglect in Older Adults Be a Geriatric Syndrome?"
by Maria P. Pavlou, MD, pavloum[email protected], and Mark S. Lachs, MD, MPH
Weill Medical College, Cornell University
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, OnlineEarly article doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00661.x,

The authors conclude that the strongest evidence that self-neglect may be a geriatric syndrome are its often multi-factorial etiology, its clear independent association with increased mortality, and the fact that two other geriatric syndromes (cognitive impairment and depression) are risk factors for self-neglect. Self-neglect is a prevalent problem that appears to have at least some features of a geriatric syndrome. Insofar as the concept of geriatric syndrome has been a useful clinical and research paradigm to create interventions for vulnerable older adults, and no such strategies are available for this vexing and understudied clinical problem, future research is warranted in this area.

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"Behavioral Health Services Utilization Among Older Adults Identified Within A State Abuse Hotline Database"
by Lawrence Schonfeld, PhD, [email protected], Rebecca G. Larsen, MSPH, and Paul G. Stiles, JD, PhD, University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute
The Gerontologist, Vol. 46, No. 2 / February 2006

This study examined the extent to which older adults identified in a statewide abuse hotline registry utilized behavioral health services. The study's authors conclude that the results provide evidence for previous assumptions that mistreated individuals experience a higher rate of behavioral health disorders. Noting that "mental health screening by adult protective services is rarely conducted," they recommend that investigators and other service providers be trained to screen older adults for behavioral health and substance-abuse issues as well as physical signs of abuse.

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"The Extent and Frequency of Abuse in the Lives of Older Women and Their Relationship with Health Outcomes"
by Bonnie S. Fisher, PhD, [email protected], University of Cincinnati, Division of Criminal Justice, and Saundra L. Regan, PhD, University of Cincinnati, Department of Family Medicine
The Gerontologist, Vol. 46, No. 2 / February 2006

This study assessed the extent of different types of abuse among a clinical sample of 842 community-dwelling women aged 60 and older, and their effects on the women's self-reported health. Nearly half of the women had experienced at least one type of abuse—psychological/emotional, control, threat, physical, or sexual—since turning 55 years old. Sizable proportions were victims of repeat abuse. Many women experienced multiple types of abuse and experienced abuse often. Abused older women were significantly more likely to report more health conditions than those who were not abused. Women who experienced psychological/emotional abuse—alone, repeatedly, or with other types of abuse—had significantly increased odds of reporting bone or joint problems, digestive problems, depression or anxiety, chronic pain, and high blood pressure or heart problems.

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"Responding to the Needs of Older Women Experiencing Domestic Violence"
by Silvia M. Straka, CSSS Cavendish/University-Affiliated Centre for Social Gerontology/McGill University, Québec, and Lyse Montminy, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada
Violence Against Women, Vol. 12, No. 3 / March 2006

Unfortunately, all too often older women experiencing domestic violence find themselves straddled between the two worlds of elder abuse and domestic violence. In this article, the authors briefly review the literature of both fields, describing the priorities of each system, how each explains and responds to violence; and why neither has been able to provide an adequate response to domestic violence in later life. A collaborative response is needed, they conclude, which takes into account both the age and gender dimensions of the problem.

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"Elder Abuse at the End of Life"
by K. Maya Jayawardena, MD, Palo Alto VA Palliative Care Program, Rancho Cordova, California, and Solomon Liao, MD, University of California, Irvine
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, Vol. 32, No. 1 / January 2006

According to the researchers, patients at the end of life are at high risk for elder abuse. Yet, the clinical presentation/signs and symptoms of elder abuse may overlap with the natural dying process and be difficult to differentiate. Multidisciplinary teams have been shown to be the most effective intervention for the assessment and prevention of elder abuse. In end-of-life situations the hospice team may be the only outside professionals in a position to screen for abuse and, if necessary, alert authorities. The authors conclude that health professionals have an ethical and clinical responsibility to both report and work to prevent suspected elder abuse.

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"Assessing Barriers to the Identification of Elder Abuse and Neglect: A Communitywide Survey of Primary Care Physicians"
by D. Kay Taylor, PhD, [email protected], Hurley Medical Center, Flint, Michigan; Ghassan Bachuwa, MD; Joyvina Evans, MSA; and Valerie Jackson-Johnson, MSW, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine
Journal of the National Medical Association, Vol. 98, No. 3 / March 2006

Physicians are mandated to report suspected abuse, but in Michigan, according to medical researchers, only a small fraction of adult protective services reports are filed by physicians. To find out why, the authors of this article surveyed a sample group of adult primary care physicians (internal medicine and family practice) in a region of Michigan. Findings revealed that the biggest obstacle to reporting was a lack of understanding by physicians of reporting mechanisms. Additionally, a majority of the responding physicians were unable to recognize key risk factors for abuse. Study findings will be used to develop local educational programs to enhance physician understanding of elder abuse.

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To see abstracts of more published studies, visit the Clearinghouse on Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly at http://db.rdms.udel.edu:8080/CANE/index.jsp. For assistance, e-mail CANE at [email protected].

Trends & Statistics

The Aging of America

  • The first U.S. Baby Boomers will turn 65 in 2011. By 2030, almost 1 out of every 5 Americans — some 72 million people — will be 65 or older. The 85+ age group is now the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population.
  • Projections suggest that by 2030 the composition of the older population will be 72 percent non-Hispanic white, 11 percent Hispanic, 10 percent black, and 5 percent Asian.
  • Three-quarters of the 10.5 million older Americans living alone in 2003 were women.
  • About one in five older Americans report having a chronic disability.
  • In 2000, 4.5 percent of people aged 75 to 84 and 18.2 percent of those 85+ lived in nursing homes.
  • Geographically, Florida (17.6%), Pennsylvania (15.6%) and West Virginia (15.3%) are the "oldest" states, with the highest percentages of people 65 and older.

—National Institute on Aging and U.S. Census Bureau, 65+ in the United States: 2005, Washington, DC, December 2005 www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p23-209.pdf

Funding Opportunities

National Institute on Aging

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has announced it is seeking small grant applications to facilitate archiving and secondary analyses of data from a variety of sources and on a variety of topics, such as aggregated Adult Protective Service records or state-level data on incidence and prevalence of elder mistreatment. Where adequate and existing data permit, research on the social determinants or risk factors associated with differential types of elder mistreatment is also needed.

A project period of up to two years and a budget for direct costs of up to two $25,000 modules or $50,000 per year may be requested.

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Target Stores' Local Giving Support Family Violence Prevention

Donated by Target stores in your community, Target's Annual Community Grant Program helps fund family violence prevention initiatives at the local level. All applications must be made locally. You can pick up a grant application form at your neighborhood Target store or download one from the Target Corporation Web site.

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Resources for Grant Writers

Calendar/Coming Up

National Crime Victims' Rights Week April 23-29

Candlelight Observance
U.S. Chamber of Commerce
1615 H Street, NW, Washington, DC
Thursday, April 20, 2006
6:30 p.m. – 7:30 pm.

This event is open to the public. No admission charge.

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World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, June 15, 2006

Many of you may be aware June 15 has been designated World Elder Abuse Awareness Day. We hope you will join others around the world in observing this important day and most importantly, helping to inspire action.

The International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (INPEA) has chosen "PURPLE" for the campaign's signature color scheme. Wear and pass out purple ribbons to everyone. Sponsor or take part in activities that promote understanding. Hand out literature, posters, or flyers with your own messages and reminders.

NCEA, as we reported earlier, is sponsoring an April 12 webcast on ways you can get involved. For more ideas, see INPEA's,

  • Community Guide World Day Tool Kit at www.inpea.net. It's useful and best of all it's free.

More Resources

In Brief

Rosalie Wolf Award Call for Nominations 2006

The National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (NCPEA) has announced the call for nominations of the Rosalie Wolf Memorial Elder Abuse Prevention Award. The award commemorates the life and work of the late Dr. Rosalie Wolf, the founder of NCPEA and an internationally renowned and respected advocate for society's most vulnerable.

The Rosalie Wolf award recognizes exemplary service and contributions to the field of elder abuse prevention and awareness. An individual or organization may be nominated.

The 2006 award will be presented at the 11th International Conference on Violence, Abuse and Trauma, which will be held in San Diego, California, September 16-19.

Nominations may be e-mailed to the NCPEA office located at [email protected]. The deadline for submittal is April 28, 2006.

A copy of the nomination form and further information about the Wolf Award can be found at www.preventelderabuse.org/new/nomination.html

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Medicare Rx Warns Public to Beware

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has recently issued a warning to seniors to be on the alert for a new telemarketing scam.

The scheme, dubbed the "$299" Ring," involves telemarketing con artists trying to illegally sell a non-existent prescription drug plan. Before closing the sale, victims are lured into giving over their bank account information.

So far this year, CMS has investigated complaints from victims in Indiana, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts New Jersey, and Georgia. And according to the National Consumer Protection Resource Center, reports have also been received about potentially fraudulent e-mail and Web offers. Consumers have reported being asked to pay as much as $195, or a finder's fee of $5 per prescription, to locate free Rx programs.

CMS is urging consumers to report these cases to local law enforcement or 1-877-7SAFERX (1-877-772-3379).

It Bears Repeating

  • No Medicare drug plan can ask a person with Medicare for bank account or other personal information over the telephone.
  • No beneficiary should ever provide that kind of information to a caller.
  • Legitimate Medicare drug plans will not ask for payment over the telephone or the Internet. They must bill the beneficiary for the monthly premium.
  • Typically, that amount is set up as an automatic withdrawal from the beneficiary's monthly Social Security check. Seniors may also opt to write a check each month or set up an auto payment system with their bank.
  • Seniors should contact their local police department if they believe someone is trying to take money or information from them illegally.

Information & Resources

New on the Bookshelf

Social Services Block Grant Annual Report 2003

The Administration for Children & Families recently released its 2003 Annual Report for the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG). Important highlights for Adult Protective Services include:

  • Out of a total budget of $2.492 billion, SSBG 2003 expenditures for adult protective services were $146,546 million — more than 451,000 adults were served.
  • Thirty-four states reported SSBG expenditures for adult protective services. (Note, in five states – Alabama, Alaska, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming – SSBG funded services were provided to children only.)
  • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) transfer funds accounted for 16 percent ($23 million) of all SSBG expenditures for adult protective services. Ten states reported transferring TANF funds for this purpose.

SSBG 2003 on the Internet >> www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ocs/ssbg/annrpt/2003/index.html

You Also May Be Interested to See

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"Financial Abuse of Seniors. Face It. It's a Crime"

The California's Attorney General's Crime and Violence Prevention Center is set to release a new consumer education video/DVD, "Financial Abuse of Seniors. Face It. It's A Crime." Developed in cooperation with law enforcement and Adult Protective Services, the video features first-hand accounts from victims.

To order your free copy, write the California Attorney General's Crime and Violence Prevention Center, 1300 I Street, Room 1150, Sacramento, CA 95814.

An Order Form is available online at http://safestate.org/documents/elder_abuse_flyer.pdf

Quote of the Month

"We cannot walk alone."

— Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream…," 28 August 1963

Table of Contents

Policy & Legislation

State News

Promising Practices Spotlight: Combating Financial Exploitation

NCEA News & Resources

On the Frontlines

Research & Scholarship

Trends & Statistics

Funding Opportunities

Calendar/Coming Up

In Brief

New on the Bookshelf

Quote of the Month

NCEA Newsletter

is published 10 times a year by


April 2006
Volume 8, No. 5
Sara Aravanis, Director
Susan Coombs Ficke, Contributing Writer/Editor

Request for Information
Call the NCEA Help Desk at
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The NCEA Newsletter is supported in part by a grant, No. 90-AM-2792, from the U.S. Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services.

Points of view or opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the official views of AoA/HHS or any of the NCEA's affiliated partners.


National Association of State Units on Aging
1201 15th Street, NW, Suite 350
Washington, DC 20005
PHONE: (202) 898-2586
FAX: (202) 898-2583
E-MAIL: [email protected]
WEB SITE: elderabusecenter.org

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